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Community Based Management

Achieving the Potential of Locally Managed Marine Areas in the South Pacific

Govan H. 2009. SPC Traditional Marine Resource Management and Knowledge Information Bulletin #25

This article is based on Govan’s 2009 paper, Status and Potential of Locally Managed Marine Areas in the South Pacific. It discusses the widespread acceptance of LMMAs throughout many of the Pacific Islands, and briefly outlines the benefits for communities. However, it highlights the limitations of LMMAs if not managed in the wider context of integrated coastal management.


Arnavon Islands Community Conservation, The Solomon Islands

Capacity Development for Protected and Other Conserved Areas in the Pacific Islands Region

Capacity Development for Protected and Other Conserved Areas in the Pacific Islands Region

This document is an important tool for promoting action. It highlights the importance of culturally‐responsive capacity development, with Pacific Islanders defining the most appropriate approaches to be used. This requires partnerships, programs, and processes that work closely with existing contexts and conditions, understand and reflect values and cultures, and help build on existing knowledge and the great strength of the region – community‐based management.  


Capacity for Conservation

Capacity for Conservation relates to organisational ability to deliver effective protected area management.  Operated by several conservation organisations, Capacity for Conservation believes that building strong conservation organisations is one of the most effective means of making a lasting contribution to conservation. It aims to support self-led organisational development to achieve conservation goals.


Community-based Biological Monitoring Training Guide (Applied at FLMMA Project Sites)

Tawake, A., Meo, S., Cakacaka, A. and Aalbersberg, W.G.L. 2004. Institute of Applied Sciences,  USP

The paper describes the process used by the Fiji Locally Managed Marine-Area (FLMMA) Network to train communities in simple biological monitoring and data presentation and to develop a biological monitoring plan for their projects. The contents of each session and tools used in this training manual have previously been tested in several other FLMMA sites and further refinement has been applied through the community biological monitoring training for five FLMMA project sites at Tagaqe village in 2003.


Community-Based Management through Special Management Areas

Community Information Pamphlet; unkown date. Department of Fisheries, Tonga


Community-Based Marine Resource Management in Solomon Islands: A Facilitator’s Guide

WorldFish. 2013.  CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems. Penang, Malaysia. 

This guide describes the process and activities that WorldFish staff have used and adapted as facilitators working with communities interested in marine resource management in Solomon Islands (2005-2013). It is a teaching guide for facilitators and presents a logical step-wise process that a facilitator (an individual or organization) can follow. The guide outlines the tools and activities that the authors found most useful at each step in the process.

The guide is divided into five modules: 


Conservation standards: From rights to responsibilities

Conservation standards: From rights to responsibilities

Although conservation interventions aim to protect biological and cultural diversity, they can affect communities in a number of ways. The vast body of international law, norms and standards protecting human rights offers little rights-based, practical guidance for conservation initiatives. Focusing on indigenous peoples, this paper aims to provide a set of draft conservation standards that outline:

• how indigenous peoples’ rights are enshrined in international law

• how conservation interventions can infringe these rights


Engaging Communities in Marine Protected Areas: Concepts and Strategies from Current Practice

Although marine protected areas (MPAs) in the United States are typically planned and implemented through a top-down, legislative approach by federal or state government agencies, marine resource managers are increasingly incorporating more bottom-up, community engagement strategies as part of their professional “toolkits.” Managers engage local communities for a wide variety of reasons, from raising awareness about the existence or conservation goals of an MPA to recruiting volunteers and citizen scientists.

Engaging Communities


Fisheries Management by Communities. A Manual on Promoting the Management of Subsistence Fisheries by Pacific Island Communities

King, M, Lambeth, L. 2000. Secretariat of the Pacific Community, Noumea, New Caledonia.

This manual provides guidelines and suggestions on how communities can be encouraged to take a leading role in the management of their fisheries and the marine environment. It promotes the Samoan model as a success story that could be transferred to other parts of the Pacific. It provides substantial background information on fisheries in the Pacific Islands, including marine ecology, fishing techniques, gear types and more.


From livelihoods to equity for better protected area conservation

Islands of the Future: Building resilience in a changing world

Islands of the Future: Building resilience in a changing world

Twenty years down the road from the Barbados Programme of Action (1994) and ten years after the Mauritius Strategy (2004), Small Island Developing States (SIDS) are in Apia, Samoa to take stock and define future priorities at the Third International Conference on SIDS, from 1 to 4 September.


Kiribati Integrated Environment Policy

Kiribati Integrated Environment Policy

The Kiribati Integrated Environment Policy (KIEP) is a key strategic policy document that marks an important milestone for the Government of Kiribati. It sets a solid policy platform for long term planning and action to respond to priority environmental issues, in particular the impacts of global climate change on our islands. It is a statement of intent and a document providing guidance and direction for government, local communities, development partners and all other stakeholders. This document is particularly relevant for 2012 the year of Rio+20 as we take stock of what we have done since the Earth Summit in 1992 and look to the future.


Locally-Managed Marine Areas: A Guide to Supporting Community-based Adaptive Management

Govan, H, Aalbersberg, W., Tawake, A. and Parks, J.E. 2008.  The Locally-Managed Marine Area Network (LMMA)

This paper is designed primarily for coastal community members, leaders and supporting partner organizations to gain the knowledge and skills that they need to establish a successful locally-managed marine area (LMMA) with community-based adaptive management (CBAM).

The four phases are thoroughly explained:

initial assessment; LMMA design and planning; implementation of CBAM; ongoing CBAM

The paper is appropriate for people who are members of the community or highly familiar with it and has already been used in countries where LMMAs are established.


Management of Village Fisheries; Samoa’s Community-Based Management Strategy

King, M., Passfield, K. and Ropeti, R.  2001. Management of Village Fisheries; Samoa’s Community-Based Management Strategy 

Samoa currently has more than 80 fish reserves managed by the community with assistance from the Fisheries Division. This detailed document outlines the process used by communities in Samoa in the preparation of fisheries management plans and establishment of fish reserves. It describes some of the activities to be carried out with the communities (e.g. problem/solution trees) and has descriptions of some of the regulations that communities can propose as fisheries management measures (e.g. limiting the number of fishers).


Manual for Community Monitoring of Sea Grass Habitat in the Western Pacific

McKenzie, L.J. & Campbell, S.J. 2002 Western Pacific Edition (QFS, NFC, Cairns).  Manual for Community Monitoring of Sea Grass Habitat in the Western Pacific

This community monitoring guide is designed to cover the region of the Philippines, Papua New Guinea and Northern Australia and is intended for Government and Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) working closely with community members to map and monitor sea grass habitats.


Pacific Cultural Mapping Planning and Policy Toolkit

Teaiwa, K. and Mercer, C. 2011.  Secretariat of the Pacific Community, Noumea, New Caledonia.

This document is a resource for ‘structuring the culture sector’ in Pacific Island countries and territories. It draws on approaches from a variety of international models while attending to several issues and concerns relevant to the Pacific Island region specifically.

It presents a background to understanding the Cultural Mapping, Planning and Policy Process (CMPPP) and explains why and how to go through a CMPPP. The appendices also contain some useful information e.g. developing a National Cultural Policy: Mapping, Planning and Policy Process.


Participatory Coastal Resource Assessment Training Guide

Deguit, E.T., Smith, R.P., Jatulan, W.P., White, A.T. 2004.  Participatory Coastal Resource Assessment Training Guide.  Coastal Resource Management Project of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Cebu City, Philippines.

This training manual was developed in the Philippines but could be adapted to suit Pacific Island communities. It is intended for 3-4 trainers to work through with communities and other stakeholders.


Principles for Community-Based Marine Conservation in the Indo-Pacific.

Parks, J, Aalbersberg, W and Salafsky, N (editors). 2001. Principles for Community-Based Marine Conservation in the Indo-Pacific. University of the South Pacific Press. Suva, Fiji.

This document contains the summary process and results from a workshop completed in 1999 by project representatives from three community-based marine biodiversity conservation projects in Indonesia, the Solomon Islands and Fiji. The goal of the workshop was to provide informed guidance for conservation practitioners in the Indo-Pacific to use in community-based marine biodiversity conservation efforts.


Traditional Knowledge for Adapting to Climate Change: Safeguarding Intangible Cultural Heritage