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Culture, Communication and Social Marketing

Communicating science and management within the local culture and finding innovative ways to encourage people to alter their behaviour are possibly the most important aspects of protected area creation and implementation and management. However, these are also areas that are under-resourced and often overlooked. 
The range of resources in this section has been selected to assist practitioners in overcoming these challenges. Some of the links provide direct access to tools and resources that have already been developed for working with communities. These resources are divided into the following two sub-sections:
 

Communication Education And Social Marketing

Adapting to a Changing Climate.

Gombos, M, Atkinson, S., Wongbusarakum, S.  2011. Adapting to a Changing Climate. The Micronesia Conservation Trust and The Nature Conservancy.

This booklet was developed as part of an outreach toolkit for community-based climate change adaptation in Micronesia. It is intended to condense both visual materials and key messages from the separate flipchart and facilitator's notes (see above) into a small document that can be kept in communities for ongoing use.


A Vision for Effective and Streamlined Reporting in the Pacific

Awesome Oceans

Within the German non-profit project WissensWerte, a hand drawn, animated short-film called Awesome Oceans has been published. It shows how fascinating this habitat is, but also how human behaviour endangers it.

The video can be watched here: https://youtu.be/UHYBH0Vn-2Y

It has a Creative Commons license and can be used and shared for free in any way.

You can download it here: http://edeos.org/en/portfolio/awesome-oceans/

 


Communicating for Success: Ensuring MPA’s are Valued

This guidebook outlines how to use communication as more than just a tool for outreach, but rather as a mechanism to catalyze change in a community’s attitude and behavior. When using various communication techniques, it is important to regard them as tools to create change from the very beginning, rather than a way to update the community on progress after the fact. Communication should not be a one sided conversation. It is ultimately a way to engage in productive dialogue with those that you are trying to reach. When used properly, strategic communication is more practical and effective than policy, especially when there is inadequate enforcement of the policy.


Communicating Protected Areas

Hamú, D., Auchincloss, E., Goldstein, W. (eds.). 2004. Communicating Protected Areas. Commission on Education and Communication, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge.

The papers within this publication are drawn from presentations at the Vth International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) World Parks Congress in Durban, 2003 (the outcomes of which influenced the development of the Convention on Biological Diversity's Protected Areas Programme of Work) as well as complimentary preparatory work of the IUCN Commission on Education and Communication (CEC).


Communicating with the Public About Marine Protected Areas.

Helms, G. and Schaadt, M. 2012.  Communicating with the Public About Marine Protected Areas. Resource Media.

This presentation is designed for the community in California but it based on the scientific principles of protected areas that are relevant worldwide.

The ideas and suggestions are applicable to protected area practitioners in the Pacific Islands. There are simple and clear suggestions on how to present protected area information to communities in a positive light.


Communication, Education and Public Awareness (CEPA) A toolkit for National Focal Points and NBSAP Coordinators

Hesselink, F., Goldstein, W., van Kempen, P.P.,  Garnett, T. and Dela, J. 2007.  Communication, Education and Public Awareness (CEPA) A toolkit for National Focal Points and NBSAP Coordinators. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity and IUCN: Montreal, Canada.

The Programme of Work on article 13 Communication, Education and Public Awareness (CEPA) was adopted at the sixth meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the CBD. One of the elements of the work program was to provide for capacity-building on CEPA for Parties to the Convention. This toolkit is designed to provide that assistance.


Community-Based Action in Small Island Developing States: Best Practices from the Equator Initiative

Community-Based Action in Small Island Developing States: Best Practices from the Equator Initiative

This publication is a companion piece to Island Innovations—UNDP and GEF: Leveraging Environment and Energy for the Sustainable Development of SIDS, a joint UNDP and GEF (Global Environment Facility) book launched at the Third International Conference on Small Island Developing States, 2014.

 

 

 

 

Conservation standards: From rights to responsibilities

Conservation standards: From rights to responsibilities

Although conservation interventions aim to protect biological and cultural diversity, they can affect communities in a number of ways. The vast body of international law, norms and standards protecting human rights offers little rights-based, practical guidance for conservation initiatives. Focusing on indigenous peoples, this paper aims to provide a set of draft conservation standards that outline:

• how indigenous peoples’ rights are enshrined in international law

• how conservation interventions can infringe these rights


Designing Effective Locally Managed Areas in Tropical Marine Environments: A Facilitator’s Guide to Help Sustain Community Benefits Through Management for Fisheries, Ecosystems, and Climate Change

Gombos, M., Atkinson, S., Green, A., & Flower, K. (Eds.). 2013. Designing Effective Locally Managed Areas in Tropical Marine Environments: A Facilitator’s Guide to Help Sustain Community Benefits Through Management for Fisheries, Ecosystems, and Climate Change. Jakarta, Indonesia and USAID Coral Triangle Support Partnership.

This visual guide was developed to help improve the design of Locally Managed Areas (LMAs). It is designed for use with the community and comes with or without the facilitator’s notes. It was designed for the Micronesia region but can easily be applied in other parts of the region.


Educational Posters on Coastal Resource Management

Foundation of the Peoples’ of the South Pacific International (FSPI). Educational Posters on Coastal Resource Management. Awareness Raising Materials.

The Foundation of the Peoples of the South Pacific International have 14 posters available under the Communities and Coasts Programme which can be downloaded in various languages, including English, Tuvalu, Solomon Pijin and Bislama.  Posters cover the topics of MPAs, larval transport, healthy fisheries, coral reproduction, land based pollution and the FSPI community and Coasts Programme.


Educational Posters on Marine Species and Other Topics

Educational Posters on Marine Species and Other Topics.  Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC). Educational materials.

The Secretariat of the Pacific Community's (SPC) digital library has posters categorized by the year they were developed for marine species and other topics.

They are downloadable as PDF documents and come in a variety of languages (e.g. the one pictured is from Kiribati).

You can also download brochures and fact sheets from their website.


Engaging Communities in Marine Protected Areas: Concepts and Strategies from Current Practice

Engaging Communities in Marine Protected Areas: Concepts and Strategies from Current Practice

Although marine protected areas (MPAs) in the United States are typically planned and implemented through a top-down, legislative approach by federal or state government agencies, marine resource managers are increasingly incorporating more bottom-up, community engagement strategies as part of their professional “toolkits.” Managers engage local communities for a wide variety of reasons, from raising awareness about the existence or conservation goals of an MPA to recruiting volunteers and citizen scientists. 

 


Fostering Sustainable Behavior – An Introduction to Community-Based Social Marketing

McKenzie-Mohr, D., and Smith, W. 2011.  Fostering Sustainable Behavior – An Introduction to Community-Based Social Marketing. New Society Publishers.

Doug McKenzie has worked for over 20 years to incorporate scientific knowledge on behaviour change into the design and delivery of community programs. He is the founder of community-based social marketing.   


Going into the Mangroves

Inspiring Support and Commitment for Protected Areas through Communication, Education and Public Awareness Programs: A Quick Guide for Protected Area Practitioners.

Ervin, J., P. Butler, L. Wilkinson, M. Piper and S. Watkins. 2010. Inspiring Support and Commitment for Protected Areas through Communication, Education and Public Awareness Programs: A Quick Guide for Protected Area Practitioners. Quick Guide Series, J. Ervin ed. Arlington, VA: Rare Conservation.

This 30-page handbook provides concise information on seven steps that can be undertaken to attempt to create sustainable behaviour change in a target population. It is introduced with the CBD’s Programme of Work on Protected Areas in mind.

The seven steps include:


Niue - Biodiversity Education Tools

RARE Pride Handbook: A Guide for Inspiring Conservation in Your Community.

Price, S. and Mayorga, M. 2007. RARE Pride Handbook: A Guide for Inspiring Conservation in Your Community. RARE,  Arlington, Virginia.

This handbook is designed to guide campaign managers through the process of designing and implementing nearly forty different activities to help spread messages, positively engage communities, and influence behaviour relating to biodiversity conservation.


REEF GAME - Tool Demonstration Guide: A Game to Explore Livelihoods and Marine Conservation in Fishing Communities.

Cleland, D., Doctor, M.V.A., and Perez, P. 2010.  REEF GAME - Tool Demonstration Guide: A Game to Explore Livelihoods and Marine Conservation in Fishing Communities. In: Marine Environment and Resources Foundation, Inc. Ecosystem-Based Management Toolkit for Philippine Coastal Resource Management.  Marine Environment and Resources Foundation, Inc., Marine Science Institute, UP Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines, 23p.


Selling Climate Change? The Limitations of Social Marketing as a Strategy for Climate Change Public Engagement

Corner, A., Randall, A. 2011.  Selling Climate Change? The Limitations of Social Marketing as a Strategy for Climate Change Public Engagement. Global Environmental Change 21, 1005–1014.

This paper claims to present the first systematic critique of social marketing as a strategy for engaging the public on climate change. Through their research, the authors present evidence that social marketing alone is insufficient to build support for ambitious policy changes and interventions required.  They even claim that in certain circumstances, social marketing could be counter productive.


Social Assessment for Protected Areas (SAPA)

Social Assessment for Protected Areas (SAPA)

This manual provides detailed guidance for assessing the social impacts – benefits and costs – of protected areas (PAs) and related conservation and development activities, at the local level using the relatively simple and low cost Social Assessment for Protected Areas (SAPA) methodology.


Socio-ecological production landscapes and seascapes (SEPLS)

Tools, Guidebooks and Posters from the Locally Managed Marine Areas Network (LMMA)

Various authors. Tools, Guidebooks and Posters from the Locally Managed Marine Areas Network (LMMA). Resource section of the LMMA Network.

The Locally Managed Marine Area (LMMA) website’s resource section has an extensive selection of resources that can be used for assisting managers and as communication tools.

Booklets and posters are downloadable from their website. For example, this deep-bottom fish identification kit contains 50 cards with full colour pictures and key identification features for each fish.


Value Island Biodiversity: It's Our Life

Local Knowledge And Cultural

A Methodology for Incorporating Traditional Ecological Knowledge with Geographic Information Systems for Marine Resource Management in the Pacific

Calamia, M. 1999. A Methodology for Incorporating Traditional Ecological Knowledge with Geographic Information Systems for Marine Resource Management in the Pacific. SPC Traditional Marine Resource Management and Knowledge Information Bulletin #10.

This article describes a general methodology for documenting indigenous knowledge of Pacific Island coral reef biogeography, and for developing a conceptual framework on how to adapt this information to a Geographic Information System (GIS) database.


Can Local Ecological Knowledge Contribute to Wildlife Management? Case Studies of Migratory Birds.

Gilchrist, G., M. Mallory and F. Merkel 2005. Can Local Ecological Knowledge Contribute to Wildlife Management? Case Studies of Migratory Birds.  Ecology and Society 10 (1): 20.

This published paper reviews four case studies of marine birds in which the authors gathered local ecological knowledge (LEK) for each species and compared it to empirical data derived from independent scientific studies of the same populations.


Co-management of Protected Areas without Local Knowledge and Participation: A Case Study from Lawachara National Park.

Aziz, M.A. 2008. Co-management of Protected Areas without Local Knowledge and Participation: A Case Study from Lawachara National Park. Jahangirnagar University, Bangladesh.

This paper assesses local knowledge about biodiversity and how this knowledge is being incorporated into the management of Lawachara National Park in Bangladesh. It seeks to inform policy makers, practitioners and protected area managers about the necessity of incorporating the knowledge of local people into the process of co-management in this and other protected areas around the world.


Fishers’ Knowledge in Fisheries Science and Management

Haggan, N., Neis, B. Baird, I. G.  2007. Fishers’ Knowledge in Fisheries Science and Management.  UNESCO.

As the fourth contribution to the UNESCO series entitled Coastal Management Sourcebooks, this volume provides analyses and case studies that support the contention that, throughout the world, the knowledge of local fisherfolk must become an integral part of decision-making on renewable resource management.

The report contains examples from around the world and discusses topics such as ‘the value of anecdotes’ and ‘fishers knowledge as long-term databases’.


From livelihoods to equity for better protected area conservation

Global Databases to Support ICCAs: a Manual for Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities

Global Databases to Support ICCAs: a Manual for Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities

The first ICCA Data Manual 1.0, which is a guide to those  providing data to the WDPA and ICCA Registry, aimed at local communities, Indigenous Peoples and those who work with them: http://wcmc.io/iccadatamanual


Guidance Document for Characterizing Tribal Cultural Landscapes

Guidelines for the Rapid Assessment of Cultural Ecosystem Services (GRACE)

Infield, M., Morse-Jones, S., and Anthem, H. (2015). Guidelines for the Rapid Assessment of Cultural Ecosystem Services (GRACE): Version 1. A report by Fauna & Flora International.

Cultural ecosystem services (CES) and the benefits they provide have long been overlooked in decision making, yet they contribute greatly to human wellbeing. 

GRACE has been developed to help decision makers to recognise and understand cultural ecosystem services and benefits, and to take these into account in their decisions about how to use and manage nature.


ICCA

ICCA

“ICCAs" are indigenous peoples' and community conserved territories and areas. They achieve conservation of species and the natural environment, together with other social and cultural objectives.

ICCAs share the following three characteristics:


Impact of Protected Areas on Poverty and Human Well-Being

Daniel Brockington, David Wilkie. Protected areas and poverty.Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 2015; 370 (1681): 20140271 DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2014.0271


Mapping Traditional Knowledge Related to the Identification of Ecologically and Biologically Significant Areas in the Beaufort Sea

Pacific Islands Forum Countries Traditional Knowledge Implementation Action Plan

Rediscovery of Traditional Ecological Knowledge as Adaptive Management

Berkes, F. Colding, J. Folke, C. 2000.  Rediscovery of Traditional Ecological Knowledge as Adaptive Management. Ecological Applications, Vol 10, No. 5.

The authors surveyed international literature to focus on the role of Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) in monitoring, responding to, and managing ecosystem processes and functions, with special attention to ecological resilience. They found a diversity of local or traditional practices for managing ecosystems which included multiple species management, resource rotation etc.


Socio-ecological production landscapes and seascapes (SEPLS)

Strengthening Conservation Cultures: Local Communities and Biodiversity Conservation

Singh, S. Sankaran, V. Mander, H. Worah, S. 2000. Strengthening Conservation Cultures: Local Communities and Biodiversity Conservation. Man and the Biosphere Programme, UNESCO, Paris, France.


Traditional Knowledge for Adapting to Climate Change: Safeguarding Intangible Cultural Heritage 

Traditional Knowledge, Use, and Management of Living Marine Resources in American Samoa: Documenting Changes over Time through Interviews with Elder Fishers

Levine, A. and Sauafea-Leau, F. 2013. Traditional Knowledge, Use, and Management of Living Marine Resources in American Samoa:  Documenting Changes over Time through Interviews with Elder Fishers. Pacific Science, vol. 67, no. 3, early view.

This paper presents the results of interviews with elder fishermen in American Samoa. Fishermen interviewed during the study described: a decline in the quality of nearshore habitats and a decrease in the abundance of edible reef fish, including culturally important species (e.g. palolo). Populations of reef sharks and turtles were typically seen as stable or increasing.


Use and Misuse of Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Management Practices: Pacific Island Examples.

Johannes, R. E. 2003. Use and Misuse of Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Management Practices: Pacific Island Examples. Pages 111–126 in D. Dallmeyer, ed. Values at sea: Ethics for the marine environment. University of Georgia Press, Athens.

Johannes uses examples from the Pacific Islands to demonstrate that Pacific Islander’s hold a wealth of marine environmental knowledge and practices that can be extremely valuable. However, he also cautions that Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) should not be idealized, nor should it be hidden or ignored. He asserts that it is the role of the managers to encourage the possessors of TEK to capitalize on its strength and reduce the effects of its weaknesses.