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Designing Protected Areas and Networks

There is a wealth of information that can be used by managers when designing individual protected areas and protected area networks. These guidelines can maximize the benefits for conservation, fisheries, climate change, livelihood security, biodiversity and a host of other factors.  The resources in this section contain some papers that provide excellent background information and guidance for designing protecting areas in addition to some of the latest science-backed guidelines for designing protected area networks.

A regulation-based classification system for Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)

Designing Effective Locally Managed Areas in Tropical Marine Environments: A Facilitator’s Guide to Help Sustain Community Benefits Through Management for Fisheries, Ecosystems, and Climate Change

Gombos, M., Atkinson, S., Green, A., & Flower, K. (Eds.). 2013. Designing Effective Locally Managed Areas in Tropical Marine Environments: A Facilitator’s Guide to Help Sustain Community Benefits Through Management for Fisheries, Ecosystems, Climate Change. Jakarta, Indonesia: USAID Coral Triangle Support Partnership. 

This guide was developed to help improve the design of Locally Managed Areas (LMAs) in the Coral Triangle region. 


Designing Marine Protected Area Networks to Achieve Fisheries Biodiversity and Climate Change Objectives in Tropical Ecosystems: A Practitioners Guide

Green, A., White, A., Kilarski, S. (Eds.) 2013. Designing Marine Protected Area Networks to Achieve Fisheries Biodiversity and Climate Change Objectives in Tropical Ecosystems: A Practitioners Guide. The Nature Conservancy, and the USAID Coral Triangle Support Partnership, Cebu City, Philippines.

This guide provides a set of biophysical principles to help practitioners design networks of marine protected areas to achieve fisheries sustainability, biodiversity conservation and ecosystem resilience in the face of climate change.


Ecologically or Biologically Significant Marine Areas (EBSAs) Special places in the world’s oceans (Western South Pacific)

Establishing Resilient Marine Protected Area Networks - Making it Happen

IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas (IUCN-WCPA). 2008. Establishing Resilient Marine Protected Area Networks - Making it Happen. Washington, D.C.: IUCN-WCPA, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and The Nature Conservancy.

This guide provides essential information to better understand the role of marine protected area (MPA) networks to achieve marine conservation. It utilizes current scientific knowledge, institutional experience and global case-studies to present the most relevant lessons in building resilient and functional networks.


Fully-Protected Marine Reserves: a Guide.

Roberts, C.M. and J.P. Hawkins. 2000. Fully-Protected Marine Reserves: a Guide. WWF Endangered Seas Campaign, Washington, DC 20037, USA and Environment Department, University of York, York, UK.

This document is divided into a number of chapters, each answering a fundamental question about no-take marine protected areas (MPAs). Thirteen case studies are also presented. Although none are from the Pacific Islands, one is from New Zealand and several are from Tasmania. The scientific information provided in this guide could be adapted for presentation to communities when working to develop fully protected areas.


Guidelines for Establishing Marine Protected Areas

Kelleher, G. and Kenchington, R. 1992. Guidelines for Establishing Marine Protected Areas. A Marine Conservation and Development Report. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland

This text offers authoritative advice on the present day planning, policies and practices for marine protected areas.

The Guidelines are intended primarily to help nations and states to establish national representative systems of marine protected areas as a vital component of the integrated management of their coastal and marine areas. The main text is supplemented by detailed appendices to assist in the planning of a system and of individual marine protected areas.


Perspectives on Marine Protected Areas

Different perspectives to best manage the Pacific Ocean in the interests of all who live there.

Hilborn, R. (2016). Marine biodiversity needs more than protection. Nature, 535(7611), 224-226.
http://www.nature.com/news/policy-marine-biodiversity-needs-more-than-protection-1.20229

Charles et al. (2016). Fishing livelihoods as key to marine protected areas: insights from the World Parks Congress. Aquatic Conservation. 26, S2. 165-184
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/aqc.2648/full


Preserving Reef Connectivity: A Handbook for Marine Protected Area Managers

Sale,P.F., Lavieren, H.V., Ablan Lagman, M.C., Atema, J., Butler, M., Fauvelot, C., Hogan, J.D., Jones, G.P, Lindeman, K.C., Paris, C.B., Steneck, R., Stewart, H.L. 2010. Preserving Reef Connectivity: A Handbook for Marine Protected Area Managers. Connectivity Working Group, Coral Reef Targeted Research & Capacity Building for Management Program, UNU-INWEH.


The Legal Aspects of Connectivity Conservation

The Science of Marine Reserves

Partnership for Interdisciplinary Studies of Coastal Oceans. 2007. The Science of Marine Reserves. 2nd Edition, International Version

The Partnership for Interdisciplinary Studies of Coastal Oceans has developed a great booklet that presents scientific information in a format that could be presented or adapted for communities.

Simplified scientific information is presented on the effects of marine reserves inside and beyond their borders with case study examples.

There are is useful guidance for reserve design (individual reserves and networks) with consideration for the human dimensions.