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Marine Resources

Marine Resources provides a potpouri of documents and links to information on marine species, deep sea mining, coral reefs, fisheries, seamounts, wetlands and more.  It is not exhaustive and other marine related resources can be found under Partnerships and Planning.

Atlas of Ocean Wealth

Atlas of Ocean Wealth

Catchment Management and Coral Reef Conservation

Coastal Management Profiles

“Contribution of Marine Conservation Agreements to Biodiversity Protection, Fisheries Management and Sustainable Financing in Fiji.”

The report documents the degree and scale to which Marine Conservation Agreements (MCAs) are being used in coastal waters in Fiji. The study focuses on partnerships involving local communities and the tourism sector. The study documented tourism-related MCAs included an estimated 266.25 km2 (26,625 ha) of MPAs, of which 210 km2 (21,000 ha) comprised deep water and offshore reefs within two large no-take reserves (Namena Marine Reserve and Vatu-i-Ra Conservation Park), and the remaining 56.25 km2 (5,625 ha) comprised mostly shallow fringing reefs and slopes. The report highlights there are many more MPAs out there (especially informal ones), that are probably not being recognized or included in our national accounting and reporting.

Cook Islands

Coral Reefs

Coral Reefs

Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network

Status of Coral Reefs of the World: 2008

Status of Coral Reefs of the Pacific and Outlook: 2011

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)

Dare To Be Deep - SeaStates Report on North America’s Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)

Dare To Be Deep:  SeaStates Report on North America’s Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)

Based on our analysis, our overall conclusion is that there remains a long way to go in reaching national and international targets to protect at least 10% of the ocean estate in North American countries. Overall, less than 1% of continental* North America’s ocean estate is protected and only 0.04% is in fully protected areas that scientists say offer the best hope to protect ocean ecosystems for the long term. 

Designing Marine Protected Area Networks

Ecologically or Biologically Significant Marine Areas (EBSAs) and Commercial Activities

Ecologically or Biologically Significant Marine Areas (EBSAs) and Commercial Activities

Deep Sea Mining contract areas in ABNJ Purse seiner pollution observer incidents across region Regional fishing vessel density Purse seiner pollution observer incidents and purse seiner vessel density

Ecologically or Biologically Significant Marine Areas (EBSAs) Special places in the world’s oceans (Western South Pacific)



Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations

State of the World's Fisheries and Aquaculture

Pacific Community

Fisheries in the Economies of Pacific Island Countries and Territories

(688 pages)

French Polynesia - Marine Protected Areas in French Polynesia

From Locally Managed Marine Areas to Indigenous and Community Conserved Oceans

The importance of the work carried out by local communities across the globe in coastal resources and fisheries management cannot be underestimated - and communities in the Pacific islands are no exception.

General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO)

The General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO) aims to provide the most authoritative, publicly-available bathymetry data sets for the world’s oceans.

Global Biodiversity Outlook 4: A mid-term assessment of progress towards the implementation of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020

Global Environment Outlook - GEO - 6 Regional Assessment for Asia and the Pacific

ICRI Innovations for coral finance

The 2018 International Year of the Reef is an opportunity for the world’s media to highlight the many threats faced by coral ecosystems and the need to protect them. One of the main challenges faced when implementing coral conservation activities is the financing of it; the funds currently needed to achieve effective and lasting conservation greatly exceed the available funds, generating a substantial financing gap.

Identifying and mitigating potential impacts of seabed mining on whale, dolphins and other marine megafauna

Issues Brief - Marine Protected Areas and Climate Change

Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) – areas of the ocean set aside for long-term conservation aims – are the only mainstream conservation-focussed, area-based measure to increase the quality and extent of ocean protection. MPAs and their network offer nature-based solution to support global efforts towards climate change adaptation and mitigation.

Large Marine Ecosystems - Status and Trends

Large Scale Marine Protected Areas - Guidelines for design and management

IUCN-WCPA’s Best Practice Protected Area Guidelines are the world’s authoritative resource for protected area managers. Involving collaboration among specialist practitioners dedicated to supporting better implementation of ideas in the field, the Guidelines distil learning and advice drawn from across IUCN. Applied in the field, they build institutional and individual capacity to manage protected area systems effectively, equitably and sustainably, and to cope with the myriad of challenges faced in practice. The Guidelines also assist national governments, protected area agencies, non-governmental organisations, communities and private sector partners in meeting their commitments and goals, and especially the Convention on Biological Diversity’s Programme of Work on Protected Areas....

Lessons learned in community-managed marine area in Karkum, Madang, Papua New Guinea

Sea turtles are a “keystone species” or a critical component of the marine environment. A keystone species plays an important role in the ecosystem by being a key feature in the functioning of the ecosystem. If the keystone species is removed it will have an adverse effect on other parts of the ecosystem. Saving keystone species helps prevent its ecosystem processes from collapsing.

Leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) is a keystone species. It is the most unique of the seven species of sea turtles. It does not have a shell, and It is critically endangered and on the brink of extinction in the Pacific Ocean.

This paper examines the Sea Turtle Restoration Project (STRP) at Karkum Village, Madang province, Papua New Guinea.

Making Protected Areas Relevant: A guide to integrating protected areas into wider landscapes, seascapes and sectoral plans and strategies

Management of Seamounts

Mapping Governance Gaps on the High Seas

Marine Biological Surveys of Coral Reefs in the Northern Lau Group

The province of Lau, located in Fiji’s Eastern Division,comprises 60 islands and islets collectively known asthe Lau Group. The Lau Group has been identified as anarea of national significance and high priority for marineprotection. On 20 February 2016, Fiji was hit by Category 5 Tropical Cyclone Winston that caused widespread damage across the country. Cyclone Winston made first landfall through the Eastern Division, severely damagingthe islands and diverse ecosystems of Northern Lau. An 8 day marine biological baseline survey was conducted by Vatuvara Foundation and the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) from 8−16 May, 2017.

Marine Mammals

New report - Reviving Melanesia’s Ocean Economy: The Case for Action,

A major new report, Reviving Melanesia’s Ocean Economy: The Case for Action, launched today, has revealed that the ocean is a much larger part of Melanesia’s economy and future prosperity than previously understood.

Melanesia is a large sub-region in the Pacific that extends from the western end of the Pacific Ocean to the Arafura Sea, and eastward to Fiji. The region includes Fiji, New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu.


Technical Guidance for Assessing the Effects of Anthropogenic Sound on Marine Mammal Hearing

Underwater Acoustic Thresholds for Onset of Permanent and Temporary Threshold Shifts

Pacific Islands Marine Portal

The Pacific Islands Marine Portal project is a collaborative project between the Pacific Islands Marine Resources Information System (PIMRIS) and the UNESCO IOC IODE Project Office (Oostende, Belgium)  to improve access to Pacific marine information for the Pacific Islands community.

Pacific Islands Species Forum

The Pacific Islands Species Forum provides an opportunity for scientists, researchers, policy-makers, and conservation practitioners to share scientific knowledge relating to species research and conservation in the Pacific.

Pacific Wetlands

Performing “A New Song”: Suggested Considerations for Drafting Effective Coastal Fisheries Legislation Under Climate Change

A New Song for Coastal Fisheries, a strategy and roadmap produced through a participatory workshop facilitated by the Secretariat of the Pacific Community, calls upon Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs) to ensure strong and up-to-date management policy, legislation, and planning for coastal fisheries. While climate change is not a core focus of the roadmap, the call of A New Song presents a unique opportunity to draft new or revised fishery legislation with climate principles in mind.

Perspectives on Marine Protected Areas

Different perspectives to best manage the Pacific Ocean in the interests of all who live there.

Hilborn, R. (2016). Marine biodiversity needs more than protection. Nature, 535(7611), 224-226.

Charles et al. (2016). Fishing livelihoods as key to marine protected areas: insights from the World Parks Congress. Aquatic Conservation. 26, S2. 165-184

Polymetallic Nodules

Reviving the Ocean Economy

The ocean puts food on the table and underpins trillions of dollars of economic activity worldwide. It does all this freely. But not for long. The ocean is heading for a collapse.  Reviving the Ocean Economy is in everybody's interest.

Samoa - A Biogeographic Assessment of the Samoan Archipelago

This report examines the marine biogeography of the Samoan Archipelago (~14º S latitude along the international date-line) with a focus on regional ocean climate, connectivity among islands due to larval transport, distributions of reef fish and coral communities, and the extent of existing marine protected areas. Management decisions and prior assessments in the archipelago have typically been split along the international political boundary between the islands of Samoa and those of American Samoa despite their close proximity and shared resources.

Seagrass - keeping Pacific marine life alive

Sharks and Rays

State of the World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2016

Status and Potential of Locally-Managed Marine Areas in the South Pacific: Meeting nature conservation and sustainable livelihood targets through wide-spread implementation of LMMAs

The Open Ocean: Status and Trends

The Open Ocean:  Status and Trends

The Open Ocean Assessment provides a baseline review of issues linking human well-being with the status of the open ocean through the themes of governance, climate change, ocean ecosystems, fisheries, pollution, and integrated assessment of the human-ocean nexus. It uses indices and indicators where data exist, in many cases with future projections due to global climate change, complemented by expert scientific assessment of numerous low certainty but potentially high impact issues where global ocean monitoring is inadequate.


Various Resources on Sea Turtles

Indian Ocean Southeast Asia Marine Turtle Memorandum of Understanding

The IOSEA Marine Turtle Memorandum of Understanding is an intergovernmental agreement concluded under the auspices of the UNEP / ‎Convention on Migratory Species (CMS). It aims to protect, conserve, replenish and recover marine turtles and their habitats of the Indian Ocean and South-East Asian region, working in partnership with other relevant actors and organisations.

Marine Mammals and Marine Turtles of the Pacific Islands Region

What do you know now that you wish you knew when you got started in MPAs? Insights from practitioners

In the 18 years that MPA News has been in publication, we have asked practitioners for lessons learned, and practices developed. We have published numerous tips on how to work more efficiently or effectively. But we have not asked you for the most fundamental, essential advice you have gained from your work. We do make that request this month, and we’ll continue to do so in future issues. We are asking practitioners: What do you know now that you wish you had known when you got started in the MPA field?