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Monitoring Biodiversity, Socioeconomic and Management Effectiveness

​The objective of monitoring and evaluation is to determine if the management plan and annual work plans effectively contribute to achieving the plan’s objectives and desired conditions for the protected area. Monitoring and evaluation tasks should focus on rare resources, on activities authorized by the protected area administration, or on basic information needs for the protected area  administration.  With plan implementation under way, monitoring will provide the feedback loop for evaluating the plan.

Evaluation will identify whether the plan is being implemented effectively, that is, whether the existing guidelines are effective and, ultimately, whether the overall objectives are being met. Monitoring will also allow observation of the impacts of management and evaluation will suggest changes to management actions accordingly.  Where implementation runs into problems, monitoring and evaluation can be used to signal needs for re-deploying management resources to improve plan implementation.

Plan monitoring and evaluation should determine if key aspects of the plan are working as intended or if changes need to be made to the plan. Evaluation should help determine if existing guidelines are effective at ensuring the sustainability of activities and resources.  Not everything can be monitored.  The plan should indicate the kind and frequency of monitoring that will occur regarding priority issues.  Based on priorities, key measures of success will need to be identified for which monitoring data can be collected, initially to establish base conditions and subsequently to establish changes.

Specific monitoring activities will depend on the objectives that have been identified for the protected area, and may include, but are not limited to:

Species of concern (sharks, rays, whales)
Coral reefs
Plant communities
Benefits attained by local communities
Human disturbances
Extent of hunting and fishing
Infrastructure impacts
Instream flows
External threats to the PA

 

As with plan implementation, subject monitoring actions to a prioritization process, as limited resources will prohibit monitoring as much as would be ideal.  Focus efforts on monitoring aspects of the plan relating to the most pressing threats to, and needs of, the protected area to assess whether or not the plan has been effective at reducing the impacts of those threats.

Examples of monitoring questions and measures:

  • Are specific management activities being implemented as described in the plan and the annual work plan?  Possible measure: percent and types of activities that are actually implemented.
  • Are specific species populations responding to management actions as anticipated in the plan?  Possible measures: population size and trend.
  • Is the plan providing for local community benefits as may be realized by association or from participation in protected area management?  Possible measure: proportion of community revenue generated by protected area management.
  • Are ecological systems being restored as provided by management actions?  Possible measure: proportion of protected area with desired ecosystem conditions.
  • Have management actions changed the quantity, quality, and spatial distribution of marine and other habitats, to help meet plan objectives?  Possible measure: proportion and types of habitats suitable for desired species.

Biological

Big Ocean: A Shared Research Agenda for Large-Scale Marine Protected Area

Wagner, D. (ed).  2013.  Big Ocean: A Shared Research Agenda for Large-Scale Marine Protected Area.  Prepared by Big Ocean planning team in collaboration with the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument & UNESCO World Heritage Site (PMNM), NOAA Office of National Marine Sanctuaries.

 Based on workshop discussions, three main research themes were identified as being most relevant to large-scale MPAs, and included (1) biological and ecological characterization, (2) connectivity and (3) monitoring of temporal trends. 


Camera Trap Data Analyses - Tropical Ecology Assessment & Monitoring Network

Centre de Recherches Insulaires et Observatoire de l’Environnement (CRIOBE)

Centre de Recherches Insulaires et Observatoire de l’Environnement (CRIOBE)

Le CRIOBE est l’un des plus éminents laboratoires français pour l’étude des écosystèmes coralliens. Depuis 2010, le CRIOBE pilote le Laboratoire d’Excellence CORAIL (LABEX) qui rassemble 9 institutions et 4 universités d’outre-mer.


Community Biological Monitoring Training Video

Community Biological Monitoring Training Video. University of the South Pacific (USP) and the Fiji Locally Managed Marine Area Network (FLMMA). 2006. Suva, Fiji.

Available on the Fiji Locally Managed Marine Areas (FLMMA) website, this training video (41 minutes) is a great resource.  It is intended for community practitioners who have already progressed through a project planning process (or similar).  The video is also available for sale. 


Coral Health and Disease in the Pacific: Vision for Action

Galloway, S.B., Bruckner, A.W. and Woodley, C.M. (eds.).  Coral Health and Disease in the Pacific: Vision for Action. 2009. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 97 and CRCP 7. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring.

For more background information on coral disease in the Pacific read this comprehensive document produced by NOAA in 2009.  It has detailed information on physiology & pathology; toxicology & ecological assessment; the pathology of disease and management perspectives. There are also a variety of white papers, including the state of knowledge in the Pacific and a discussion on communication.


Delimiting Surveys for Invasive Ants

Pacific Invasives Network. Delimiting Surveys for Invasive Ants. 2013. Auckland, New Zealand.

These guidelines, provided by the Pacific Invasives Network, are designed for those who have planned to carry out ant surveys of the species, Anoplolepis gracilipes, Monomorium floricola, Pheidole megacephala, Tetramorium bicarinatum, Tapinoma melanocephalum and Wasmannia auropunctata. For each species, there is a description (including size, colour, impacts and dispersal mechanisms).


How is Your MPA Doing? A Guidebook of Natural and Social Indicators for Evaluating Marine Protected Area Management Effectiveness

Pomeroy, R.S., Parks, J.E., Watson, L. M. 2004.  How is Your MPA Doing? A Guidebook of Natural and Social Indicators for Evaluating Marine Protected Area Management Effectiveness. IUCN Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK

This comprehensive guidebook was developed to assist MPA managers in assessing the performance of their MPA. It contains step-by-step instructions on how to carry out effective monitoring including on selecting indicators, planning and conducting the evaluation and communicating the results for adaptive management.


Institut des Récifs Coralliens du Pacifique

L’Institut des récifs coralliens du Pacifique (IRCP) 

L’Institut des récifs coralliens du Pacifique (IRCP) est un institut de l’Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes (EPHE), créé le 21 janvier 2009 par arrêté du Ministère de l’Enseignement Supérieur et de la Recherche. Les actions principales de l’Institut des récifs coralliens du Pacifique (IRCP) s’organisent selon les 4 encadrés tel que le Réseau de suivi des Récifs Coralliens.

 

 

 

Instruction Manual A Guide to Reef Check Monitoring

Hodgson, G., Hill, J., Kiene, W., Maun, L., Mihaly, J., Liebeler, J., Shuman, C. and Torres, R. 2006. Instruction Manual A Guide to Reef Check Monitoring.  Reef Check Foundation, Pacific Palisades, California, USA


Manual for Mangrove Monitoring in the Pacific Islands Region

Ellison, J.C., Jungblut, V., Anderson, P., Slaven, C. 2012.  Manual for Mangrove Monitoring in the Pacific Islands Region. SRPEP, Apia, Samoa.

Prepared for SPREP in response to calls from member countries in 2007 and recently updated in 2012, this manual adapts internationally accepted mangrove monitoring methods to Pacific Island settings. Baseline survey data can be generated to monitor changes and make comparisons across mangrove areas in the wider Pacific.
 


MAQTRAC Marine Aquarium Trade Coral Reef Monitoring Protocol Field Manual

Hodgson, G and Ochavillo, D. 2006.  MAQTRAC Marine Aquarium Trade Coral Reef Monitoring Protocol Field Manual. Reef Check Foundation. Pacific Palisades, California USA.

According to SPC, thirteen Pacific Island countries participate in the Marine Aquarium Trade. The Marine Aquarium Council contacted the Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network to develop a monitoring regime for these countries. They requested that Reef Check do this and the Manual for the Marine Aquarium Trade Coral Reef, Monitoring Protocol (MAQTRAC) was developed.


Monitoring Coral Reef Marine Protected Areas: Version 1. A Practical Guide on how Monitoring can Support Effective Management of MPAs

Wilkinson, C. Green, A,  Almany, J. and Dionne, S. 2003. Monitoring Coral Reef Marine Protected Areas:  Version 1. A Practical Guide on how Monitoring can Support Effective Management of MPAs.  Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, Australia and IUCN Global Marine Program, Gland, Switzerland

This guide was created after numerous requests from managers of marine protected areas (MPAs) around the world who asked for advice on designing and implementing monitoring programmes to help them manage their MPAs more effectively.


Monitoring for Management of Protected Areas- An Overview

Rao, M., Stokes, e. and Johnson, a. 2009.  Monitoring for Management of Protected Areas- An Overview. Training Module 6 for the Network of Conservation Educators and Practitioners. American Museum of Natural History and the Wildlife Conservation Society, Vientiane, Lao PDR.

This chapter is part of an eight chapter manual produced by the Wildlife Conservation Society and the American Museum of Natural History for training protected area staff in Laos. The manual draws from the Open Standards for the Practice of Conservation and provides basic principles for designing monitoring strategies for measuring change in conservation targets, with an emphasis on wildlife species and populations.


Monitoring Wildlife Populations for Management

Stokes, E., A. Johnson and M. Rao. 2010. Monitoring Wildlife Populations for Management. Training Module 7 for the Network of Conservation Educators and Practitioners. American Museum of Natural History and the Wildlife Conservation Society, Vientiane, Lao PDR.

This chapter is part of an eight chapter manual produced by the Wildlife Conservation Society and the American Museum of Natural History for training protected area staff in Laos. The manual draws from the Open Standards for the Practice of Conservation and provides basic principles for designing monitoring strategies for measuring change in conservation targets, with an emphasis on wildlife species and populations.


Papua New Guinea Forest Monitoring Portal

Underwater Cards for Assessing Coral Health on Indo-Pacific Reefs

Beeden, R., Willis, B., Raymundo, L.J., Page, C.A., Weil, E. 2008. Underwater Cards for Assessing Coral Health on Indo-Pacific Reefs. Coral Reef Targeted Research and Capacity Building for Management Program, c/- Centre for Marine Studies, Gerhmann Building, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Australia.

This is a set of underwater identification cards for assessing coral health and identifying disease in the Indo-Pacific.  They could be printed onto waterproof or laminated paper.  You may also be able to purchase a copy directly from the CRTR.


Management Effectiveness

A Global Register of Competences for Protected Area Practitioners

A Global Register of Competences for Protected Area Practitioners

As the global coverage of protected areas approaches 20% of the land surface and 10% of the sea surface, more and more individuals, agencies and communities are responsible for safeguarding the planet’s natural and associated cultural heritage. Managing protected areas is becoming more demanding and more diverse. Today’s managers, staff and stewards are expected to:


Assessing Protected Area Management Effectiveness

The Nature Conservancy. Assessing Protected Area Management Effectiveness. Convention on Biological Diversity and World Wildlife Fund for Nature Conservation. 2008

This quick guide is part of a series of materials to support protected area management.  It discusses lessons learned and describes:

in-depth evidence-based assessments system-level peer-based assessments site-level scorecard-based assessments categorical assumption-based assessments assessing protected area threats using management effectiveness assessments

Automatic Identification System (AIS) and the Monitoring of Marine Protected Areas and Exclusive Economic Zones

Automatic Identification System (AIS) and the Monitoring of Marine Protected Areas and Exclusive Economic Zones

Vast areas of the ocean (millions of km2) have been designated as Marine Protected Areas (MPA), marine reserves, shark sanctuaries and other conservation categories.  Even in the absence of conservation categories overlying a nation’s 200-mile offshore exclusive economic zone (EEZ), the EEZ itself must be monitored for compliance.  Monitoring conservation areas and EEZs for legal and illegal uses such as fishing and mining is a challenge.


Capacity Development for Protected and Other Conserved Areas in the Pacific Islands Region

Capacity Development for Protected and Other Conserved Areas in the Pacific Islands Region

This document is an important tool for promoting action. It highlights the importance of culturally‐responsive capacity development, with Pacific Islanders defining the most appropriate approaches to be used. This requires partnerships, programs, and processes that work closely with existing contexts and conditions, understand and reflect values and cultures, and help build on existing knowledge and the great strength of the region – community‐based management.  


Convention on Biological Diversity – Protected Areas Management Effectiveness

Convention on Biological Diversity – Protected Areas Management Effectiveness

It is a requirement in the Programme of Work on Protected Areas (Goal 4.2) ‘To evaluate and improve the effectiveness of protected areas management’

The target (by 2010) was, ‘frameworks for monitoring, evaluating and reporting protected areas management effectiveness at sites, national and regional systems, and transboundary protected area levels adopted and implemented by Parties.’

The CBD website section for goal 4.2 contains information and background on this topic along with descriptions of the various approaches that can be taken. There is also a list of tools and resources on the subject.


Evaluating Effectiveness: a framework for assessing management effectiveness of protected areas

Evaluating Effectiveness: a framework for assessing management effectiveness of protected areas

Management effectiveness evaluation is defined as the assessment of how well protected areas are being managed – primarily the extent to which management is protecting values and achieving goals and objectives. The term management effectiveness reflects three main ‘themes’ in protected area management:


Global Fishing Watch

Global Fishing Watch is the product of a technology partnership between SkyTruth, Oceana, and Google that is designed to show all of the trackable fishing activity in the ocean. This interactive web tool – currently in prototype stage – is being built to enable anyone to visualize the global fishing fleet in space and time. Global Fishing Watch will reveal the intensity of fishing effort around the world, one of the stressors contributing to the precipitous decline of our fisheries.


Guide for Improving Marine Protected Area Management Effectiveness in Indonesia

How is Your MPA Doing? A Guidebook of Natural and Social Indicators for Evaluating Marine Protected Area Management Effectiveness

Pomeroy, R.S., Parks, J.E., Watson, L. M. 2004. How is Your MPA Doing? A Guidebook of Natural and Social Indicators for Evaluating Marine Protected Area Management Effectiveness. IUCN Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK

This comprehensive guidebook was developed to assist marine protected area (MPA) managers in assessing the performance of their MPA. It contains step-by-step instructions on how to carry out effective monitoring including the selection of indicators, planning and conducting the evaluation and communicating the results for adaptive management.


IUCN Green List of Well Managed Protected Areas

Management effectiveness evaluation in protected areas – a global study

Management effectiveness evaluation in protected areas – a global study 

The Global Study into management effectiveness evaluation was conducted between late 2005 and 2010. In cooperation with many people across the world, we aimed to strengthen the management of protected areas by compiling the existing work on management effectiveness evaluation, reviewing methodologies, finding patterns and common themes in evaluation results, and investigating the most important factors leading to effective management.


METT Handbook

METT Handbook: A guide to using the Management Effectiveness Tracking Tool (METT)

Foreward

The METT was developed as part of the WWF-World Bank Forest Alliance programme and the first version was field tested in 2001. Since then it has been adopted and adapted by the Global Environment Facility and many other countries, organisations and projects, as outlined in this publication.


Rapid Assessment and Prioritization of Protected Area Management (RAPPAM) Methodology

Ervin, J. 2003. Rapid Assessment and Prioritization of Protected Area Management (RAPPAM) Methodology. WWF, Gland, Switzerland.

The Rapid Assessment and Prioritization of Protected Area Management (RAPPAM) methodology provides protected area agencies with a country-wide overview of the effectiveness of protected area management, threats, vulnerabilities and degradation.  It provides follow-up recommendations and is an important first step in assessing and improving protected area management. It is described online on the WWF website.


Reporting Progress in Protected Areas: A Site-Level Management Effectiveness Tracking Tool

Reporting Progress in Protected Areas: A Site-Level Management Effectiveness Tracking Tool

Commonly referred to as the Tracking Tool, this rapid assessment is being used in all World Bank/WWF Alliance protected area project sites to track changes in effectiveness of management.  The system has also been adopted by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) as the basis for tracking changes in management effectiveness in all GEF protected area project sites.  This tool contains data sheets and assessment forms that can be used by practitioners.


Socioeconomic

How is Your MPA Doing? A Guidebook of Natural and Social Indicators for Evaluating Marine Protected Area Management Effectiveness

Pomeroy, R.S., Parks, J.E., Watson, L. M. 2004. How is Your MPA Doing? A Guidebook of Natural and Social Indicators for Evaluating Marine Protected Area Management Effectiveness.  IUCN Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK

This comprehensive guidebook was developed to assist MPA managers in assessing the performance of their MPA. It contains step-by-step instructions on how to carry out effective monitoring including: selecting indicators, planning and conducting the evaluation and communicating the results for adaptive management.


SEM-PASIFIKA Socioeconomic Monitoring Guidelines for Coastal Managers in Pacific Island Countries

Wongbusarakum, S., Pomeroy, B., 2008.  SEM-PASIFIKA Socioeconomic Monitoring Guidelines for Coastal Managers in Pacific Island Countries. SPREP, Apia, Samoa   These guidelines provide guidance for conducting a socio-economic assessment in the Pacific Islands region.
 

Socioeconomic Fisheries Surveys in Pacific Islands: a Manual for the Collection of a Minimum Dataset

Kronen, M., Stacey, N., Holland, P., Magron, F., Power, M. 2007. Socioeconomic Fisheries Surveys in Pacific Islands: a Manual for the Collection of a Minimum  Dataset. SPC, Noumea, New Caledonia.  

This manual is intended for anyone involved in data collection, data analysis and the development, implementation and monitoring of coastal fisheries management strategies or measures. The major objective of the manual is to provide a tool that assists fisheries authorities and others in the Pacific region to obtain data that supports informed management decision-making aimed at sustainable, effective and equitable use of reef and lagoon resources.


Socioeconomic Manual for Coral Reef Management

Bunce, L. Townsley, P., Pomeroy, R., Pollnac, R. 2000. Socioeconomic Manual for Coral Reef Management. GCRMN, AIMS, Townsville, Australia.

This manual, which was developed to parallel the existing biophysical manual (English et al. 1997), is intended for use by coral reef managers to assist them with basic socioeconomic assessments in their communities.

The audience is the manager who does not have formal social science training and may use English as a second or third language. Implementation of this manual should be accompanied by training and guidance in conducting socioeconomic assessments.


Sustainable livelihood strategies for conservation of biodiversity in Fiji, including potential crops and value adding opportunities in three FPAM project sites.

FAO’s project “Forestry and Protected Area Management” (FPAM) assists four countries, Fiji, Niue,Samoa and Vanuatu, with the goal of strengthening biodiversity conservation and the reduction of
forest and land degradation. The project’s development objective is to enhance the sustainablelivelihoods of local communities living in and around protected areas.