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Sustainable Financing of Protected Areas
In addition to general materials on the subject of sustainable finance, there is a financial sustainability scorecard, various menus of financing options and a discussion on the application of a business model to conservation.
Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES)
A variety of resources and guidelines discussing the various ways that PES can be implemented to assist with conservation efforts are presented. A paper on the role of protected areas in storing carbon makes particular reference to the Pacific Islands and highlights the potentially important role that protected area networks could play in reducing carbon emissions.
This module aims at providing online learning and networking opportunities on issues in the interface between science, policy and practice related to Biodiversity Finance.
In this module, you can learn more about the organisations who are working in this field, share information and knowledge, connect and interact with experts from around the globe, and find possible solutions to your specific questions.
The Biodiversity Finance Initiative (BIOFIN) develops and pilots a new approach and methodology for leveraging increased biodiversity investments
BIOFIN is a global partnership addressing the biodiversity finance challenge in a comprehensive manner. The Initiative provides an innovative methodology enabling countries to measure their current biodiversity expenditures, assess their financial needs in the medium term and identify the most suitable finance solutions to bridge their national biodiversity finance gaps.
The BIOFIN workbook provides guidance to countries to measure their current biodiversity expenditure levels, asses their financial needs and identify the most suitable finance solutions.
Conservation Finance e-Resources. A Compendium of Examples for Self-Sustaining Projects to Protect Wildlife and the Environment
Sherman, A. 2003. Conservation Finance e-Resources. A Compendium of Examples for Self-Sustaining Projects to Protect Wildlife and the Environment. Washington, D.C.: WWF Center for Conservation Finance.
This e-document is provided by WWF’s Center for Conservation Finance to assist any individual with an interest in finding ways to help sustainably finance conservation. The document is organized into three main sections:
• WWF Conservation Finance related publications
• A categorized summary of Conservation Finance techniques
• Links to other Conservation Finance related databases
The document has helpful hyperlinks, both within and external to the document. These are not maintained.
The objective of this report is to identify financial product structures that have the potential to establish conservation finance in mainstream investment markets.
Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Program of Work on Protected Areas (PoWPAs) Sustainable Financing 1
Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Program of Work on Protected Areas (PoWPAs) Sustainable Financing 1
The CBD PoWPAs has a requirement: “To ensure financial sustainability of protected areas and national and regional systems of protected areas” (Goal 3.4).
The 2008 target for this goal was: “sufficient financial, technical and other resources to meet the costs to effectively implement and manage national and regional systems of protected areas are secured, including both from national and international sources, particularly to support the needs of developing countries and countries with economies in transition and small island developing States”
Flores, M., G. Rivero, F. León, G. Chan, et al. 2008. Financial Planning for National Systems of Protected Areas: Guidelines and Early Lessons. Arlington, VA: The Nature Conservancy
This document provides guidelines and lessons to optimize both the financial planning processes of protected areas and the products resulting from these processes. It is expected that this document will improve the financial management capacities of individuals and institutions working in protected areas.
Bovarnick, A. 2008. Financial Sustainability Scorecard: for National Systems of Protected Areas. UNDP.
This scorecard is designed for governments, donors and NGOs to investigate the current status of financing in protected area systems. By looking at inflow and outflow to the capital system as well as the entire protected area financing system and its structure, the scorecard aims to show the trend towards or away from improved financial status.
Although the scorecard is designed for national systems of protected areas, it could also be used by sub-sets such as state level managers.
Spergel, B. and Moye. M. 2004. Financing Marine Conservation; A Menu of Options. Washington, D.C.: WWF Center for Conservation Finance.
This document clearly outlines many of the options that are available to finance conservation projects including: government revenue allocations; grants and donations; tourism revenues; real estate and development rights; fishing industry revenues; energy and mining revenues and for profit investments.
WWF Center for Conservation Finance. 2009. Guide to Conservation Finance. Sustainable Financing for the Planet. Washington, D.C
The Guide to Conservation Finance provides an overview of conservation financing mechanisms that have been implemented throughout the world. The guide informs field practitioners about which mechanisms they could apply to achieve their conservation aims. The various mechanisms are illustrated with short case studies that demonstrate both successes and challenges. In addition, the guide provides a list of resources and web-links for further exploration of the conservation finance field.
The issue of innovative financing for biodiversity forms part of the wider challenge of financing the struggle against the loss of diversity among living beings on the scales of species, ecosystems and genes. By adopting the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, the international community endorsed the objectives of:
• conserving biodiversity;
• using biodiversity sustainably;
• the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources.
Lutchman, I. 2005. Marine Protected Areas: Costs and Benefits for Small Islands. WWF; the Netherlands.
This report provides background information on the benefits of marine protected areas (MPAs) and goes onto discuss the direct and indirect costs involved in running MPAs.
Section 4.3 is on Sustainable Financing and Incentives with case studies provided from Belize, Samoa, St Lucia, and the Seychelles.
The final section of the report provides detailed case studies of the Seychelles, Fiji and Belize with actual running costs and finance provisions for their MPA networks.
Spergel, B. 2001. Raising Revenues for Protected Areas. Washington, D.C.: WWF Center for Conservation Finance
This paper describes more than 25 different ways of raising revenues for protected areas. It summarizes their relative advantages and disadvantages and lists sources for obtaining further information. It is intended as a practical tool for protected-area managers, finance ministry officials, international donor agencies, and local conservation organizations.
There is a useful explanation of the steps required to set up a conservation trust fund in the appendix.
Hooten, A.J., Hatziolos, M.E. 1995. Proceedings of a workshop held at The World Bank, Washington, D.C. June 23, 1995. Sustainable Financing Mechanisms for Coral Reef Conservation. Environmentally Sustainable Development Proceedings Series No. 9.
Although this is an old document, it describes many methods of financing coral reef and protected area management that could be useful to practitioners in the Pacific Islands region.
Emerton, L., Bishop, J. and Thomas, L. 2006. Sustainable Financing of Protected Areas: A Global Review of Challenges and Options. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
This Guideline sets out the background to financing protected areas and identifies a series of approaches that can be taken towards achieving protected area financial sustainability.
PricewaterhouseCoopers. 2007. Sustainable Investments for Conservation: The Business Case for Biodiversity. A study on behalf of the WWF. PricewaterhouseCoopers.
This study investigates the extent to which projects which aim to conserve biological diversity can be run in an economically profitable way, so that they attract investment from the private sector (sustainable investments).
A Gateway to Payments for Ecosystem Services : Using Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) for Livelihoods and Landscapes
Huberman, D. 2008. A Gateway to Payments for Ecosystem Services: Using Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) for Livelihoods and Landscapes. Markets and Incentives for Livelihoods and Landscapes Series No. 1, Forest Conservation Programme, International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), Gland.
Campbell, A., Kapos, V., Lysenko, I., Schalemann, J.P.W., Dickson, B., Gibbs, H.K., Hansen, M., Mikes, L. 2008. Carbon Emissions from Forest Loss in Protected Areas. UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre.
This study combines the best available data on carbon stocks and deforestation with protected area data to estimate the area of forest loss within the protected area network of the humid tropical forest biome during 2000-2005. Regions where protected areas are simultaneously rich in carbon and under pressure from land cover change are identified.
The authors report high carbon density in Papua New Guinea and recommend enhancing management of forested protected areas in this area (along with Australasia).
Natural Capital Project. Stanford University's Woods Institute for the Environment, University of Minnesota's Institute on the Environment, The Nature Conservancy, and World Wildlife Fund.
The goal of this joint venture is to engage leaders in key institutions and meld world-class research and development with influential on-the-ground conservation programs.
To do this the Natural Capital project is developing tools to quantify the value of natural capital and demonstrate the use of these tools to integrate scientific and economic understanding of natural capital into decision-making. This project is currently being developed and you should monitor the website to see when the tools become live.
Greiber, T. 2009. Payments for Ecosystem Services: Legal and Institutional Frameworks. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
One of the objectives of this publication is to give recommendations for the future development of legal and institutional frameworks which support water-related Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) schemes and their implementation.
The document describes: what we understand by water-related ecosystem services and PES; what policy makers should consider when assessing and potentially revising the legal and institutional frameworks for water related PES schemes and which contractual and governance issues should be addressed by PES project developers.
Payments for Environmental Services An equitable approach for reducing poverty and conserving nature
Duncan, E. 2006. Payments for Environmental Services An equitable approach for reducing poverty and conserving nature. WWF-Netherlands
This document provides useful background information on Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES). The first chapter is an overview of the traditional approaches to PES, and the second chapter provides information on WWF’s approach which is known as equitable PES.
Campbell, A., Dickson, B., Gibbs, H., Hansen, M., Kapos, V., Lysenko, I., Miles, L. Scharlemann, J. 2009. The Role of Protected Areas in Storing Carbon and Reducing Emissions. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 6.
In this presentation abstract, the authors combine the best available data sources for carbon in vegetation, soil, protected areas and deforestation, to estimate the amount of carbon stored within protected areas, and provide an estimate of emissions from deforestation within protected areas of the humid tropical biome in the years 2000-2005.