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Micronesia, Federated States of

Country Name ISO Alpha-2 Code ISO Alpha-3 Code BIOPAMA Region
Micronesia, Federated States of FM FSM Pacific

Disclaimer: This data is sourced from WDPA. If you find any errors please contact SPREP and we will action it accordingly

?Protected area coverage was calculated based on the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) August 2014 for the UNEP-WCMC Protected Planet Report 2014 (Juffe-Bignoli et al. 2014). The number of protected areas was derived from the same WDPA version and includes only protected areas with the status ‘designated’. All protected areas with a marine component are counted as marine protected areas.

 

Key protected area stats

Total number of protected areas: 8
 
Terrestrial protected area coverage: 4.33%
Shortfall to the CBD's 17% terrestrial target: 12.67%
Landlocked country: no
 
Total number of marine protected areas: 1
 
Marine protected area coverage (0-200 nm): 0.00%
Shortfall to the CBD's 10% marine target: 10.00%

?This table includes all designated protected areas for the country included in the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) August 2014 (IUCN and UNEP-WCMC 2014).

Designated Protected Areas

IUCN Management Category Link
Not Applicable 2
IV 8
Not Reported 11
VI 1
V 2
Protected area name Status IUCN management category Reported area (km²) Reported marine area (km²)
And Atoll Designated Not Applicable 1.15 1.00
Chuuk State Lagoon Not Reported Not Reported 0.00 0.00
Chuuk State Underwater Not Reported Not Reported 0.00 0.00
Enipein Marine Park and Mangrove Sanctuary Designated IV 0.00 0.00
Giant Clam Not Reported Not Reported 0.00 0.00
Kehpera Marine Sanctuary Designated IV 0.00 0.00
Kisin Nahmw en Nangih Stingray Sanctuary Designated IV 0.00 0.00
Kosrae Island Designated Not Reported 0.00 0.00
Lenger Island Designated VI 0.01 0.01
Mwahnd Pass Conservation Area Not Reported Not Reported 0.00 0.00
Nahmwen Na Stingray Designated IV 0.00 0.00
Nahtik Marine Sanctuary Designated IV 0.19 0.19
Okat Trochus Marine Not Reported Not Reported 0.00 0.00
Orloluk Designated IV 0.00 0.00
Palipohn Depehk Marine Sanctuary Designated IV 0.00 0.00
Pohnpei Designated V 51.00 0.00
Pwudoi Sanctuary Designated IV 0.00 0.00
Ringe Te Suh Not Reported Not Reported 0.00 0.00
Senpehn-Lehdau Mangrove Forest Designated Not Reported 10.32 0.00
Trochus Santuaries Designated Not Reported 0.00 0.00
Utwa-Walung Conservation Area Designated V 22.73 22.73
Utwe Designated Not Applicable 17.73 0.00
Winipot Mountain Not Reported Not Reported 0.00 0.00
Yela-Okat Terminalia Swamp/Mangrove Forest Designated Not Reported 5.80 0.00
CSV

?Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs) are sites that contribute significantly to the global persistence of biodiversity according to globally standardised criteria. They are used by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) to assess if the global protected area system adequately covers ‘areas of particular importance for biodiversity’ as per Aichi Biodiversity Target 11. Only two subsets of KBAs have been identified across virtually all countries: Alliance for Zero Extinction Sites (AZEs) and Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBAs). The KBA protection stats provided here come from Butchart et al. (2015). They are based on the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) January 2013. More information on the AZEs and IBAs datasets and their completeness can be found in Butchart et al. (2015).

Alliance for Zero Extinction sites (AZEs)

CSV

?Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs) are sites that contribute significantly to the global persistence of biodiversity according to globally standardised criteria. They are used by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) to assess if the global protected area system adequately covers ‘areas of particular importance for biodiversity’ as per Aichi Biodiversity Target 11. Only two subsets of KBAs have been identified across virtually all countries: Alliance for Zero Extinction Sites (AZEs) and Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBAs). The KBA protection stats provided here come from Butchart et al. (2015). They are based on the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) January 2013. More information on the AZEs and IBAs datasets and their completeness can be found in Butchart et al. (2015).

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBAs)

CSV

?The terrestrial ecoregions of the world (TEOW; Olson et al. 2001) provide a biogeographic classification of the world’s terrestrial ecosystems. They are used by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) to measure progress towards the ecological representativeness of the global protected area system called for in Aichi Biodiversity Target 11. The ecoregion protection stats provided here come from the Digital Observatory for Protected Areas (DOPA). They are based on the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) August 2014 and were used in the UNEP-WCMC Protected Planet Report 2014 (Juffe-Bignoli et al. 2014).

Terrestrial ecoregions

Ecoregion name % of country covered % of ecoregion protected in country % of ecoregion protected worldwide % of ecoregion within country % country contribution to protection worldwide
Carolines tropical moist forests 0.02 4.67 4.67 100.0 100.0
Yap tropical dry forests 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0
CSV

?The marine ecoregions of the world (MEOW; Spalding et al. 2007) provide a biogeographic classification of the world’s coastal and shelf waters (< 200 m depths). They are used by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) to measure progress towards the ecological representativeness of the global protected area system called for in Aichi Biodiversity Target 11. The ecoregion protection stats provided here come from the Digital Observatory for Protected Areas (DOPA). They are based on the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) August 2014 and were used in the UNEP-WCMC Protected Planet Report 2014 (Juffe-Bignoli et al. 2014).

Marine ecoregions

Ecoregion name % of country covered % of ecoregion protected in country % of ecoregion protected worldwide % of ecoregion within country % country contribution to protection worldwide
East Caroline Islands 1.19 0.17 0.17 100.0 100.0
West Caroline Islands 0.1 0.0 16.49 38.89 0.0
CSV

Land cover classes

This tab will show, among other things, pie charts with the country's land cover stats (GLC 2000 and GlobeCover 2005).

?The indicative species numbers provided here come from the Digital Observatory for Protected Areas (DOPA). The numbers include those species whose range intersects with the terrestrial and/or marine (Exclusive Economic Zone out to 200 nautical miles from the coastline) boundary of the country. Only selected globally assessed taxonomic groups are shown. The species ranges and conservation status are from the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species August 2014. The intersection followed the methodology described in Le Saout et al. (2013).

 

Indicative number of amphibian, bird and mammal species

Class Total number of species (sum of CR, EN, VU, NT, LC and DD) Total number of threatened species (sum of CR, EN and VU) Critically Endangered (CR) Endangered (EN) Vulnerable (VU) Near Threatened (NT) Least Concern (LC) Data Deficient (DD)
Aves
116 13 1 2 10 13 88 0
Mammalia
34 10 1 4 5 0 12 12

 

Indicative number of marine species in selected taxonomic groups

Class Total number of species (sum of CR, EN, VU, NT, LC and DD) Total number of threatened species (sum of CR, EN and VU) Critically Endangered (CR) Endangered (EN) Vulnerable (VU) Near Threatened (NT) Least Concern (LC) Data Deficient (DD)
Anthozoa
422 103 0 2 101 119 182 18
Actinopterygii
300 10 0 0 10 11 259 20
Chondrichthyes
26 13 0 0 13 9 1 3
Hydrozoa
6 1 0 1 0 0 5 0

Amphibia species list

No Species found in this country

Aves species list

Common name Status Taxon Kingdom Phylum Order Family Custom text Image
Chinese Goshawk LC Accipiter soloensis Animalia Chordata Accipitriformes Accipitridae Check Image
Gray Duck LC Anas superciliosa Animalia Chordata Anseriformes Anatidae Check Image
Tufted Duck LC Aythya fuligula Animalia Chordata Anseriformes Anatidae Check Image
Northern Pintail LC Anas acuta Animalia Chordata Anseriformes Anatidae Check Image
No common name found LC Spatula clypeata Animalia Chordata Anseriformes Anatidae Check Image
No common name found LC Mareca penelope Animalia Chordata Anseriformes Anatidae Check Image
No common name found LC Aerodramus inquietus Animalia Chordata Caprimulgiformes Apodidae Check Image
Lesser Sand Plover LC Charadrius mongolus Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Charadriidae Check Image
No common name found LC Sternula albifrons Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Laridae Check Image
Black naped Tern LC Sterna sumatrana Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Laridae Check Image
Roseate Tern LC Sterna dougallii Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Laridae Check Image
Whimbrel LC Numenius phaeopus Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Scolopacidae Check Image
Long toed Stint LC Calidris subminuta Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Scolopacidae Check Image
Great Knot VU Calidris tenuirostris Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Scolopacidae Check Image
No common name found LC Thalasseus bergii Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Laridae Check Image
Little Ringed Plover LC Charadrius dubius Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Charadriidae Check Image
Swinhoe s Snipe LC Gallinago megala Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Scolopacidae Check Image
Oriental Pratincole LC Glareola maldivarum Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Glareolidae Check Image
No common name found LC Onychoprion lunatus Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Laridae Check Image
No common name found LC Onychoprion fuscatus Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Laridae Check Image
No common name found LC Onychoprion anaethetus Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Laridae Check Image
Bristle thighed Curlew VU Numenius tahitiensis Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Scolopacidae Check Image
Common Sandpiper LC Actitis hypoleucos Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Scolopacidae Check Image
Black bellied Plover LC Pluvialis squatarola Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Charadriidae Check Image
Angel Tern LC Gygis alba Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Laridae Check Image
Blue Noddy LC Procelsterna cerulea Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Laridae Check Image
Bar tailed Godwit LC Limosa lapponica Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Scolopacidae Check Image
Black tailed Godwit NT Limosa limosa Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Scolopacidae Check Image
Red necked Stint LC Calidris ruficollis Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Scolopacidae Check Image
Greater Sand Plover LC Charadrius leschenaultii Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Charadriidae Check Image
Black Noddy LC Anous minutus Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Laridae Check Image
Common Greenshank LC Tringa nebularia Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Scolopacidae Check Image
Marsh Sandpiper LC Tringa stagnatilis Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Scolopacidae Check Image
Brown Noddy LC Anous stolidus Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Laridae Check Image
Terek Sandpiper LC Xenus cinereus Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Scolopacidae Check Image
Curlew Sandpiper LC Calidris ferruginea Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Scolopacidae Check Image
Ruddy Turnstone LC Arenaria interpres Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Scolopacidae Check Image
No common name found LC Tringa incana Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Scolopacidae Check Image
Sanderling LC Calidris alba Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Scolopacidae Check Image
Dunlin LC Calidris alpina Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Scolopacidae Check Image
No common name found NT Tringa brevipes Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Scolopacidae Check Image
Wood Sandpiper LC Tringa glareola Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Scolopacidae Check Image
Common Pigeon LC Columba livia Animalia Chordata Columbiformes Columbidae Check Image
No common name found LC Ptilinopus ponapensis Animalia Chordata Columbiformes Columbidae Check Image
No common name found VU Alopecoenas kubaryi Animalia Chordata Columbiformes Columbidae Check Image
No common name found NT Alopecoenas xanthonurus Animalia Chordata Columbiformes Columbidae Check Image
Micronesian Imperial Pigeon NT Ducula oceanica Animalia Chordata Columbiformes Columbidae Check Image
No common name found LC Ptilinopus hernsheimi Animalia Chordata Columbiformes Columbidae Check Image
No common name found VU Todiramphus reichenbachii Animalia Chordata Coraciiformes Alcedinidae Check Image
No common name found LC Urodynamis taitensis Animalia Chordata Cuculiformes Cuculidae Check Image
Domestic Chicken LC Gallus gallus Animalia Chordata Galliformes Phasianidae Check Image
No common name found LC Amaurornis cinerea Animalia Chordata Gruiformes Rallidae Check Image
No common name found EX Zapornia monasa Animalia Chordata Gruiformes Rallidae Check Image
Large Ponhpei White eye NT Rukia longirostra Animalia Chordata Passeriformes Zosteropidae Check Image
Faichuk White eye EN Rukia ruki Animalia Chordata Passeriformes Zosteropidae Check Image
Caroline Islands Reed Warbler LC Acrocephalus syrinx Animalia Chordata Passeriformes Sylviidae Check Image
Caroline Islands White eye LC Zosterops semperi Animalia Chordata Passeriformes Zosteropidae Check Image
Eurasian Tree Sparrow LC Passer montanus Animalia Chordata Passeriformes Passeridae Check Image
Rufous Fantail LC Rhipidura rufifrons Animalia Chordata Passeriformes Rhipiduridae Check Image
Gray White eye LC Zosterops cinereus Animalia Chordata Passeriformes Zosteropidae Check Image
Plain White eye NT Zosterops hypolais Animalia Chordata Passeriformes Zosteropidae Check Image
Olive colored White eye NT Zosterops oleagineus Animalia Chordata Passeriformes Zosteropidae Check Image
Pohnpei Fantail LC Rhipidura kubaryi Animalia Chordata Passeriformes Rhipiduridae Check Image
Western Yellow Wagtail LC Motacilla flava Animalia Chordata Passeriformes Motacillidae Check Image
Micronesian Starling LC Aplonis opaca Animalia Chordata Passeriformes Sturnidae Check Image
Hunstein s Mannikin LC Lonchura hunsteini Animalia Chordata Passeriformes Estrildidae Check Image
Blue faced Parrot Finch LC Erythrura trichroa Animalia Chordata Passeriformes Estrildidae Check Image
Micronesian Myzomela LC Myzomela rubratra Animalia Chordata Passeriformes Meliphagidae Check Image
Barn Swallow LC Hirundo rustica Animalia Chordata Passeriformes Hirundinidae Check Image
Cicadabird LC Coracina tenuirostris Animalia Chordata Passeriformes Campephagidae Check Image
Kosrae Starling EX Aplonis corvina Animalia Chordata Passeriformes Sturnidae Check Image
Pohnpei Starling CR Aplonis pelzelni Animalia Chordata Passeriformes Sturnidae Check Image
Oceanic Flycatcher LC Myiagra oceanica Animalia Chordata Passeriformes Monarchidae Check Image
Pohnpei Flycatcher LC Myiagra pluto Animalia Chordata Passeriformes Monarchidae Check Image
Yap Monarch NT Monarcha godeffroyi Animalia Chordata Passeriformes Monarchidae Check Image
Chuuk Monarch EN Metabolus rugensis Animalia Chordata Passeriformes Monarchidae Check Image
Nutmeg Mannikin LC Lonchura punctulata Animalia Chordata Passeriformes Estrildidae Check Image
Black crowned Night Heron LC Nycticorax nycticorax Animalia Chordata Pelecaniformes Ardeidae Check Image
Little Egret LC Egretta garzetta Animalia Chordata Pelecaniformes Ardeidae Check Image
Nankeen Night Heron LC Nycticorax caledonicus Animalia Chordata Pelecaniformes Ardeidae Check Image
No common name found LC Ardea brachyrhyncha Animalia Chordata Pelecaniformes Ardeidae Check Image
Yellow Bittern LC Ixobrychus sinensis Animalia Chordata Pelecaniformes Ardeidae Check Image
No common name found LC Ardea intermedia Animalia Chordata Pelecaniformes Ardeidae Check Image
Green backed Heron LC Butorides striata Animalia Chordata Pelecaniformes Ardeidae Check Image
White tailed Tropicbird LC Phaethon lepturus Animalia Chordata Phaethontiformes Phaethontidae Check Image
Red tailed Tropicbird LC Phaethon rubricauda Animalia Chordata Phaethontiformes Phaethontidae Check Image
Streaked Shearwater LC Calonectris leucomelas Animalia Chordata Procellariiformes Procellariidae Check Image
No common name found LC Ardenna carneipes Animalia Chordata Procellariiformes Procellariidae Check Image
No common name found VU Ardenna bulleri Animalia Chordata Procellariiformes Procellariidae Check Image
No common name found NT Ardenna grisea Animalia Chordata Procellariiformes Procellariidae Check Image
No common name found LC Ardenna pacifica Animalia Chordata Procellariiformes Procellariidae Check Image
No common name found LC Ardenna tenuirostris Animalia Chordata Procellariiformes Procellariidae Check Image
Bulwer s Petrel LC Bulweria bulwerii Animalia Chordata Procellariiformes Procellariidae Check Image
No common name found LC Puffinus bailloni Animalia Chordata Procellariiformes Procellariidae Check Image
Korure NT Pterodroma inexpectata Animalia Chordata Procellariiformes Procellariidae Check Image
Collared Petrel VU Pterodroma leucoptera Animalia Chordata Procellariiformes Procellariidae Check Image
Kermadec Petrel LC Pterodroma neglecta Animalia Chordata Procellariiformes Procellariidae Check Image
Black winged Petrel LC Pterodroma nigripennis Animalia Chordata Procellariiformes Procellariidae Check Image
Bonin Petrel LC Pterodroma hypoleuca Animalia Chordata Procellariiformes Procellariidae Check Image
Herald Petrel LC Pterodroma heraldica Animalia Chordata Procellariiformes Procellariidae Check Image
Black footed Albatross NT Phoebastria nigripes Animalia Chordata Procellariiformes Diomedeidae Check Image
Tahiti Petrel NT Pseudobulweria rostrata Animalia Chordata Procellariiformes Procellariidae Check Image
White naped Petrel VU Pterodroma cervicalis Animalia Chordata Procellariiformes Procellariidae Check Image
Pycroft s Petrel VU Pterodroma pycrofti Animalia Chordata Procellariiformes Procellariidae Check Image
Providence Petrel VU Pterodroma solandri Animalia Chordata Procellariiformes Procellariidae Check Image
No common name found LC Hydrobates leucorhous Animalia Chordata Procellariiformes Hydrobatidae Check Image
Black bellied Storm Petrel LC Fregetta tropica Animalia Chordata Procellariiformes Oceanitidae Check Image
No common name found LC Hydrobates castro Animalia Chordata Procellariiformes Hydrobatidae Check Image
No common name found VU Hydrobates matsudairae Animalia Chordata Procellariiformes Hydrobatidae Check Image
Pohnpei Lorikeet NT Trichoglossus rubiginosus Animalia Chordata Psittaciformes Psittacidae Check Image
Short eared Owl LC Asio flammeus Animalia Chordata Strigiformes Strigidae Check Image
Great Frigatebird LC Fregata minor Animalia Chordata Suliformes Fregatidae Check Image
Red footed Booby LC Sula sula Animalia Chordata Suliformes Sulidae Check Image
Lesser Frigatebird LC Fregata ariel Animalia Chordata Suliformes Fregatidae Check Image
Brown Booby LC Sula leucogaster Animalia Chordata Suliformes Sulidae Check Image
Masked (Blue faced) Booby LC Sula dactylatra Animalia Chordata Suliformes Sulidae Check Image

Mammals species list

Common name Status Taxon Kingdom Phylum Ordersort descending Family
Cachelot VU Physeter macrocephalus Animalia Chordata Cetartiodactyla Physeteridae
False Killer Whale DD Pseudorca crassidens Animalia Chordata Cetartiodactyla Delphinidae
Melon headed Whale LC Peponocephala electra Animalia Chordata Cetartiodactyla Delphinidae
Common Minke Whale LC Balaenoptera acutorostrata Animalia Chordata Cetartiodactyla Balaenopteridae
Ginkgo toothed Beaked Whale DD Mesoplodon ginkgodens Animalia Chordata Cetartiodactyla Ziphiidae
Philippine Brown Deer VU Rusa marianna Animalia Chordata Cetartiodactyla Cervidae
Bridled Dolphin LC Stenella attenuata Animalia Chordata Cetartiodactyla Delphinidae
Bottle nosed Dolphin LC Tursiops truncatus Animalia Chordata Cetartiodactyla Delphinidae
Cuvier's Beaked Whale LC Ziphius cavirostris Animalia Chordata Cetartiodactyla Ziphiidae
Rough toothed Dolphin LC Steno bredanensis Animalia Chordata Cetartiodactyla Delphinidae
Long beaked Dolphin DD Stenella longirostris Animalia Chordata Cetartiodactyla Delphinidae
Euphrosyne Dolphin LC Stenella coeruleoalba Animalia Chordata Cetartiodactyla Delphinidae
Blainville's Beaked Whale DD Mesoplodon densirostris Animalia Chordata Cetartiodactyla Ziphiidae
Chimo DD Orcinus orca Animalia Chordata Cetartiodactyla Delphinidae
Blue Whale EN Balaenoptera musculus Animalia Chordata Cetartiodactyla Balaenopteridae
Bryde's Whale DD Balaenoptera edeni Animalia Chordata Cetartiodactyla Balaenopteridae
Bunch LC Megaptera novaeangliae Animalia Chordata Cetartiodactyla Balaenopteridae
Omura’s Whale DD Balaenoptera omurai Animalia Chordata Cetartiodactyla Balaenopteridae
Pygmy Killer Whale DD Feresa attenuata Animalia Chordata Cetartiodactyla Delphinidae
Pacific Pilot Whale DD Globicephala macrorhynchus Animalia Chordata Cetartiodactyla Delphinidae
Coalfish Whale EN Balaenoptera borealis Animalia Chordata Cetartiodactyla Balaenopteridae
Fraser s Dolphin or Sarawak Dolphin LC Lagenodelphis hosei Animalia Chordata Cetartiodactyla Delphinidae
Dwarf Sperm Whale DD Kogia sima Animalia Chordata Cetartiodactyla Physeteridae
Pygmy Sperm Whale DD Kogia breviceps Animalia Chordata Cetartiodactyla Physeteridae
Grey Dolphin LC Grampus griseus Animalia Chordata Cetartiodactyla Delphinidae
Indo pacific Beaked Whale DD Indopacetus pacificus Animalia Chordata Cetartiodactyla Ziphiidae
Mariana sheath tailed bat EN Emballonura semicaudata Animalia Chordata Chiroptera Emballonuridae
Kosrae Flying Fox VU Pteropus ualanus Animalia Chordata Chiroptera Pteropodidae
Mariana flying fox EN Pteropus mariannus Animalia Chordata Chiroptera Pteropodidae
Carolines Fruit Bat CR Pteropus insularis Animalia Chordata Chiroptera Pteropodidae
Caroline Flying Fox VU Pteropus molossinus Animalia Chordata Chiroptera Pteropodidae
Yap Flying Fox VU Pteropus yapensis Animalia Chordata Chiroptera Pteropodidae
Kiore LC Rattus exulans Animalia Chordata Rodentia Muridae
Oriental House Rat LC Rattus tanezumi Animalia Chordata Rodentia Muridae

?This content is provided by ECOLEX - the gateway to environmental law, which is a collaboration of IUCN, FAO and UNEP. The results show the country's protected area-related legislation and treaties recorded in the ECOLEX database. Click on "refine query" to modify the search.

Micronesia, Federated States of

General references for the country information and indicators:

Borrini-Feyerabend, G., Bueno, P., Hay-Edie, T., Lang, B., Rastogi, A., Sandwith, T. (2014) A Primer on Governance for Protected and Conserved Areas. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Butchart, S.H.M., Clarke, M., Smith, R.J., Sykes, R.E., Scharlemann, J.P.W., Harfoot, M., Buchanan, G.M., Angulo, A., Balmford, A., Bertzky, B., Brooks, T.M., Carpenter, K.E., Comeros-Raynal, M.T., Cornell, J., Ficetola, G.F., Fishpool, L.D.C., Fuller, R.A., Geldmann, J., Harwell, H., Hilton-Taylor, C., Hoffmann, M., Joolia, A., Joppa, L., Kingston, N., May, I., Milam, A., Polidoro, B., Ralph, G., Richman, N., Rondinini, C., Segan, D.B., Skolnik, B., Spalding, M.D., Stuart, S.N., Symes, A., Taylor, J., Visconti, P., Watson, J.E.M., Wood, L., Burgess, N.D. (2015) Shortfalls and solutions for meeting national and global conservation area targets. Conservation Letters. DOI: 10.1111/conl.12158

Dubois, G., Schulz, M., Skøien, J., Cottam, A., Temperley, W., Clerici, M., Drakou, E., van’t Klooster, J., Verbeeck, B., Palumbo, I., Derycke, P., Pekel, J.-F., Martínez-López, J., Peedell, S., Mayaux, P. (2013) An Introduction to the Digital Observatory for Protected Areas (DOPA) and the DOPA Explorer (Beta). EUR 26207 EN, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg.

Dubois, G., Bastin, L., Martínez-López, J., Cottam, A., Temperley, W., Bertzky, B., Graziano, M. (2015) The Digital Observatory for Protected Areas (DOPA) Explorer 1.0. EUR 27162 EN, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg.

Dudley, N. (editor) (2008) Guidelines for Applying Protected Area Management Categories. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Hartley, A., Nelson, A., Mayaux, P., Grégoire, J.-M. (2007) The Assessment of African Protected Areas. EUR 22780 EN, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.

IUCN and UNEP-WCMC (2013) The World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) On-line, January 2013. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK. Available at: www.protectedplanet.net

IUCN and UNEP-WCMC (2014) The World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) On-line, August 2014. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK. Available at: www.protectedplanet.net

IUCN and UNEP-WCMC (2015) The World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) On-line, July 2015. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK. Available at: www.protectedplanet.net

Juffe-Bignoli, D., Burgess, N.D., Bingham, H., Belle, E.M.S., de Lima, M.G., Deguignet, M., Bertzky, B., Milam, A.N., Martinez-Lopez, J., Lewis, E., Eassom, A., Wicander, S., Geldmann, J., van Soesbergen, A., Arnell, A.P., O’Connor, B., Park, S., Shi, Y.N., Danks, F.S., MacSharry, B., Kingston, N. (2014) Protected Planet Report 2014. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK.

Le Saout, S., Hoffmann, M., Shi, Y., Hughes, A., Bernard, C., Brooks, T.M., Bertzky, B., Butchart, S.H.M., Stuart, S.N., Badman, T., Rodrigues, A.S.L. (2013) Protected areas and effective biodiversity conservation. Science 342: 803–805.

Olson, D.M., Dinerstein, E., Wikramanayake, E.D., Burgess, N.D., Powell, G.V.N., Underwood, E.C., d’Amico, J.A., Itoua, I., Strand, H.E., Morrison, J.C., Loucks, C.J., Allnutt, T.F., Ricketts, T.H., Kura, Y., Lamoreux, J.F., Wettengel, W.W., Hedao, P., Kassem, K.R. (2001) Terrestrial ecoregions of the world: a new map of life on Earth. BioScience 51: 933–938.

Rodrigues, A.S.L., Brooks, T.M., Butchart, S.H.M., Chanson, J., Cox, N., Hoffmann, M., Stuart, S.N. (2014) Spatially explicit trends in the global conservation status of vertebrates. PLoS ONE 9(11): e113934. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0113934

Spalding, M.D., Fox, H.E., Allen, G.R., Davidson, N., Ferdaña, Z.A., Finlayson, M., Halpern, B.S., Jorge, M.A., Lombana, A., Lourie, S.A., Martin, K.D., McManus, E., Molnar, J., Recchia, C.A., Robertson, J. (2007) Marine ecoregions of the world: a bioregionalization of coast and shelf areas. BioScience 57: 573–583.

UNEP-WCMC (2015) World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) User Manual 1.0. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK.

WDPA Country Report August 2014 (from UNEP-WCMC)