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Palau

Country Name ISO Alpha-2 Code ISO Alpha-3 Code BIOPAMA Region
Palau PW PLW Pacific

Disclaimer: This data is sourced from WDPA. If you find any errors please contact SPREP and we will action it accordingly

?Protected area coverage was calculated based on the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) August 2014 for the UNEP-WCMC Protected Planet Report 2014 (Juffe-Bignoli et al. 2014). The number of protected areas was derived from the same WDPA version and includes only protected areas with the status ‘designated’. All protected areas with a marine component are counted as marine protected areas.

 

Key protected area stats

Total number of protected areas: 7
 
Terrestrial protected area coverage: 15.97%
Shortfall to the CBD's 17% terrestrial target: 1.03%
Landlocked country: no
 
Total number of marine protected areas: 3
 
Marine protected area coverage (0-200 nm): 0.23%
Shortfall to the CBD's 10% marine target: 9.77%

?This table includes all designated protected areas for the country included in the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) August 2014 (IUCN and UNEP-WCMC 2014).

Designated Protected Areas

IUCN Management Category Link
Not Applicable 2
IV 4
III 1
II 8
VI 3
Not Reported 10
V 1
Protected area name Status IUCN management category Reported area (km²) Reported marine area (km²)
Airai #2 Designated VI 1.00 1.00
Angaur Designated Not Reported 0.40 0.40
Bkulengriil Designated Not Reported 0.70 0.70
Ebiil Designated II 0.00 0.00
Helen Reef Designated II 163.00 163.00
Imul Mangrove Designated Not Reported 0.40 0.40
Lake Ngardok Nature Reserve Designated Not Reported 5.00 0.00
Ngaraard Mangrove Designated Not Reported 1.40 1.40
Ngardmau Waterfall Designated II 0.00 0.00
Ngardok Designated IV 0.00 0.00
Ngaremeduu Designated VI 0.00 0.00
Ngaremeduu Designated Not Applicable 129.50 0.00
Ngchesechang Mangrove Designated Not Reported 1.00 1.00
Ngederrak Reef Designated IV 0.00 0.00
Ngelukes Designated Not Reported 1.00 1.00
Ngemai Designated II 1.00 1.00
Ngemelis Designated V 0.00 0.00
Ngerchelchuus Designated II 0.00 0.00
Ngerkebesang Designated Not Reported 0.10 0.10
Ngermasech Designated II 0.00 0.00
Ngeruangel Designated II 0.00 0.00
Ngerukewid Islands Designated III 0.00 0.00
Ngerumekoal Designated IV 0.00 0.00
Ngkisaol Sardines Designated IV 0.00 0.00
Oikull Mangrove Designated VI 1.00 1.00
Reef of Ileyakl Beluu (Ileakelbeluu) Designated Not Reported 0.50 0.50
Rock Islands Southern Lagoon Inscribed Not Applicable 1,002.00 0.00
Rock Islands Southern Lagoon Designated Not Reported 840.60 840.60
Tululeu Seagrass Designated II 0.80 0.80
CSV

?Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs) are sites that contribute significantly to the global persistence of biodiversity according to globally standardised criteria. They are used by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) to assess if the global protected area system adequately covers ‘areas of particular importance for biodiversity’ as per Aichi Biodiversity Target 11. Only two subsets of KBAs have been identified across virtually all countries: Alliance for Zero Extinction Sites (AZEs) and Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBAs). The KBA protection stats provided here come from Butchart et al. (2015). They are based on the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) January 2013. More information on the AZEs and IBAs datasets and their completeness can be found in Butchart et al. (2015).

Alliance for Zero Extinction sites (AZEs)

CSV

?Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs) are sites that contribute significantly to the global persistence of biodiversity according to globally standardised criteria. They are used by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) to assess if the global protected area system adequately covers ‘areas of particular importance for biodiversity’ as per Aichi Biodiversity Target 11. Only two subsets of KBAs have been identified across virtually all countries: Alliance for Zero Extinction Sites (AZEs) and Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBAs). The KBA protection stats provided here come from Butchart et al. (2015). They are based on the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) January 2013. More information on the AZEs and IBAs datasets and their completeness can be found in Butchart et al. (2015).

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBAs)

CSV

?The terrestrial ecoregions of the world (TEOW; Olson et al. 2001) provide a biogeographic classification of the world’s terrestrial ecosystems. They are used by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) to measure progress towards the ecological representativeness of the global protected area system called for in Aichi Biodiversity Target 11. The ecoregion protection stats provided here come from the Digital Observatory for Protected Areas (DOPA). They are based on the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) August 2014 and were used in the UNEP-WCMC Protected Planet Report 2014 (Juffe-Bignoli et al. 2014).

Terrestrial ecoregions

Ecoregion name % of country covered % of ecoregion protected in country % of ecoregion protected worldwide % of ecoregion within country % country contribution to protection worldwide
Palau tropical moist forests 0.08 11.93 11.93 100.0 100.0
CSV

?The marine ecoregions of the world (MEOW; Spalding et al. 2007) provide a biogeographic classification of the world’s coastal and shelf waters (< 200 m depths). They are used by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) to measure progress towards the ecological representativeness of the global protected area system called for in Aichi Biodiversity Target 11. The ecoregion protection stats provided here come from the Digital Observatory for Protected Areas (DOPA). They are based on the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) August 2014 and were used in the UNEP-WCMC Protected Planet Report 2014 (Juffe-Bignoli et al. 2014).

Marine ecoregions

Ecoregion name % of country covered % of ecoregion protected in country % of ecoregion protected worldwide % of ecoregion within country % country contribution to protection worldwide
West Caroline Islands 0.8 26.99 16.49 61.11 100.0
CSV

Land cover classes

This tab will show, among other things, pie charts with the country's land cover stats (GLC 2000 and GlobeCover 2005).

?The indicative species numbers provided here come from the Digital Observatory for Protected Areas (DOPA). The numbers include those species whose range intersects with the terrestrial and/or marine (Exclusive Economic Zone out to 200 nautical miles from the coastline) boundary of the country. Only selected globally assessed taxonomic groups are shown. The species ranges and conservation status are from the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species August 2014. The intersection followed the methodology described in Le Saout et al. (2013).

 

Indicative number of amphibian, bird and mammal species

Class Total number of species (sum of CR, EN, VU, NT, LC and DD) Total number of threatened species (sum of CR, EN and VU) Critically Endangered (CR) Endangered (EN) Vulnerable (VU) Near Threatened (NT) Least Concern (LC) Data Deficient (DD)
Aves
103 3 0 1 2 8 92 0
Mammalia
34 5 0 3 2 2 14 13
Amphibia
1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0

 

Indicative number of marine species in selected taxonomic groups

Class Total number of species (sum of CR, EN, VU, NT, LC and DD) Total number of threatened species (sum of CR, EN and VU) Critically Endangered (CR) Endangered (EN) Vulnerable (VU) Near Threatened (NT) Least Concern (LC) Data Deficient (DD)
Anthozoa
426 97 0 3 94 118 192 19
Actinopterygii
357 11 0 0 11 14 303 29
Chondrichthyes
27 14 0 1 13 10 1 2
Hydrozoa
6 0 0 0 0 1 5 0

Amphibia species list

Common namesort descending Status Taxon Kingdom Phylum Order Family
Palau Frog LC Platymantis pelewensis Animalia Chordata Anura Ceratobatrachidae

Aves species list

Common name Status Taxon Kingdom Phylum Order Family Custom text Image
No common name found LC Onychoprion lunatus Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Laridae Check Image
No common name found LC Onychoprion fuscatus Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Laridae Check Image
No common name found LC Pachycephala tenebrosa Animalia Chordata Passeriformes Pachycephalidae Check Image
No common name found LC Puffinus bailloni Animalia Chordata Procellariiformes Procellariidae Check Image
No common name found LC Spatula querquedula Animalia Chordata Anseriformes Anatidae Check Image
No common name found LC Onychoprion anaethetus Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Laridae Check Image
No common name found LC Microcarbo melanoleucos Animalia Chordata Suliformes Phalacrocoracidae Check Image
No common name found VU Hydrobates matsudairae Animalia Chordata Procellariiformes Hydrobatidae Check Image
No common name found LC Hypotaenidia philippensis Animalia Chordata Gruiformes Rallidae Check Image
No common name found NT Caprimulgus phalaena Animalia Chordata Caprimulgiformes Caprimulgidae Check Image
No common name found LC Mareca penelope Animalia Chordata Anseriformes Anatidae Check Image
No common name found LC Sternula albifrons Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Laridae Check Image
No common name found LC Pyrroglaux podargina Animalia Chordata Strigiformes Strigidae Check Image
No common name found LC Thalasseus bergii Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Laridae Check Image
No common name found NT Tringa brevipes Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Scolopacidae Check Image
No common name found LC Tringa incana Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Scolopacidae Check Image
No common name found LC Urodynamis taitensis Animalia Chordata Cuculiformes Cuculidae Check Image
No common name found LC Aerodramus pelewensis Animalia Chordata Caprimulgiformes Apodidae Check Image
No common name found LC Amaurornis cinerea Animalia Chordata Gruiformes Rallidae Check Image
No common name found NT Alopecoenas canifrons Animalia Chordata Columbiformes Columbidae Check Image
No common name found NT Todiramphus pelewensis Animalia Chordata Coraciiformes Alcedinidae Check Image
No common name found LC Ardenna pacifica Animalia Chordata Procellariiformes Procellariidae Check Image
No common name found LC Ardea brachyrhyncha Animalia Chordata Pelecaniformes Ardeidae Check Image
No common name found LC Ardea intermedia Animalia Chordata Pelecaniformes Ardeidae Check Image
Angel Tern LC Gygis alba Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Laridae Check Image
Australasian pied stilt LC Himantopus himantopus Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Recurvirostridae Check Image
Bar tailed Godwit LC Limosa lapponica Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Scolopacidae Check Image
Barn Swallow LC Hirundo rustica Animalia Chordata Passeriformes Hirundinidae Check Image
Black bellied Plover LC Pluvialis squatarola Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Charadriidae Check Image
Black crowned Night Heron LC Nycticorax nycticorax Animalia Chordata Pelecaniformes Ardeidae Check Image
Black headed Gull LC Larus ridibundus Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Laridae Check Image
Black headed Munia LC Lonchura malacca Animalia Chordata Passeriformes Estrildidae Check Image
Black naped Tern LC Sterna sumatrana Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Laridae Check Image
Black Noddy LC Anous minutus Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Laridae Check Image
Black tailed Godwit NT Limosa limosa Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Scolopacidae Check Image
Blue faced Parrot Finch LC Erythrura trichroa Animalia Chordata Passeriformes Estrildidae Check Image
Blue Rock Thrush LC Monticola solitarius Animalia Chordata Passeriformes Muscicapidae Check Image
Brown Booby LC Sula leucogaster Animalia Chordata Suliformes Sulidae Check Image
Brown Noddy LC Anous stolidus Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Laridae Check Image
Bulwer s Petrel LC Bulweria bulwerii Animalia Chordata Procellariiformes Procellariidae Check Image
Caroline Islands White eye LC Zosterops semperi Animalia Chordata Passeriformes Zosteropidae Check Image
Chestnut Munia LC Lonchura atricapilla Animalia Chordata Passeriformes Estrildidae Check Image
Chinese Goshawk LC Accipiter soloensis Animalia Chordata Accipitriformes Accipitridae Check Image
Cicadabird LC Coracina tenuirostris Animalia Chordata Passeriformes Campephagidae Check Image
Collared Kingfisher LC Todiramphus chloris Animalia Chordata Coraciiformes Alcedinidae Check Image
Common Greenshank LC Tringa nebularia Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Scolopacidae Check Image
Common Moorhen LC Gallinula chloropus Animalia Chordata Gruiformes Rallidae Check Image
Common Tern LC Sterna hirundo Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Laridae Check Image
Curlew Sandpiper LC Calidris ferruginea Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Scolopacidae Check Image
Domestic Chicken LC Gallus gallus Animalia Chordata Galliformes Phasianidae Check Image
Dunlin LC Calidris alpina Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Scolopacidae Check Image
Dusky White eye LC Zosterops finschii Animalia Chordata Passeriformes Zosteropidae Check Image
Eclectus Parrot LC Eclectus roratus Animalia Chordata Psittaciformes Psittacidae Check Image
Giant White eye NT Megazosterops palauensis Animalia Chordata Passeriformes Zosteropidae Check Image
Gray Duck LC Anas superciliosa Animalia Chordata Anseriformes Anatidae Check Image
Great Frigatebird LC Fregata minor Animalia Chordata Suliformes Fregatidae Check Image
Great Knot VU Calidris tenuirostris Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Scolopacidae Check Image
Green backed Heron LC Butorides striata Animalia Chordata Pelecaniformes Ardeidae Check Image
Kentish Plover LC Charadrius alexandrinus Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Charadriidae Check Image
Lesser Frigatebird LC Fregata ariel Animalia Chordata Suliformes Fregatidae Check Image
Lesser Sand Plover LC Charadrius mongolus Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Charadriidae Check Image
Little Curlew LC Numenius minutus Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Scolopacidae Check Image
Little Egret LC Egretta garzetta Animalia Chordata Pelecaniformes Ardeidae Check Image
Little Ringed Plover LC Charadrius dubius Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Charadriidae Check Image
Long toed Stint LC Calidris subminuta Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Scolopacidae Check Image
Mangrove Flycatcher LC Myiagra erythrops Animalia Chordata Passeriformes Monarchidae Check Image
Marianas Scrubfowl EN Megapodius laperouse Animalia Chordata Galliformes Megapodiidae Check Image
Marsh Sandpiper LC Tringa stagnatilis Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Scolopacidae Check Image
Masked (Blue faced) Booby LC Sula dactylatra Animalia Chordata Suliformes Sulidae Check Image
Micronesian Imperial Pigeon NT Ducula oceanica Animalia Chordata Columbiformes Columbidae Check Image
Micronesian Myzomela LC Myzomela rubratra Animalia Chordata Passeriformes Meliphagidae Check Image
Micronesian Starling LC Aplonis opaca Animalia Chordata Passeriformes Sturnidae Check Image
Nankeen Night Heron LC Nycticorax caledonicus Animalia Chordata Pelecaniformes Ardeidae Check Image
Nicobar Dove NT Caloenas nicobarica Animalia Chordata Columbiformes Columbidae Check Image
Northern Pintail LC Anas acuta Animalia Chordata Anseriformes Anatidae Check Image
Nutmeg Mannikin LC Lonchura punctulata Animalia Chordata Passeriformes Estrildidae Check Image
Oriental Pratincole LC Glareola maldivarum Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Glareolidae Check Image
Pacific Golden Plover LC Pluvialis fulva Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Charadriidae Check Image
Palau Bush Warbler LC Cettia annae Animalia Chordata Passeriformes Sylviidae Check Image
Palau Fantail LC Rhipidura lepida Animalia Chordata Passeriformes Rhipiduridae Check Image
Palau Fruit Dove LC Ptilinopus pelewensis Animalia Chordata Columbiformes Columbidae Check Image
Peregrine LC Falco peregrinus Animalia Chordata Falconiformes Falconidae Check Image
Pomarine Jaeger LC Stercorarius pomarinus Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Stercorariidae Check Image
Purple Gallinule LC Porphyrio porphyrio Animalia Chordata Gruiformes Rallidae Check Image
Red footed Booby LC Sula sula Animalia Chordata Suliformes Sulidae Check Image
Red necked Phalarope LC Phalaropus lobatus Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Scolopacidae Check Image
Red necked Stint LC Calidris ruficollis Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Scolopacidae Check Image
Red tailed Tropicbird LC Phaethon rubricauda Animalia Chordata Phaethontiformes Phaethontidae Check Image
Roseate Tern LC Sterna dougallii Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Laridae Check Image
Ruddy Turnstone LC Arenaria interpres Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Scolopacidae Check Image
Sanderling LC Calidris alba Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Scolopacidae Check Image
Slaty legged Crake LC Rallina eurizonoides Animalia Chordata Gruiformes Rallidae Check Image
Streaked Shearwater LC Calonectris leucomelas Animalia Chordata Procellariiformes Procellariidae Check Image
Sulphur crested Cockatoo LC Cacatua galerita Animalia Chordata Psittaciformes Cacatuidae Check Image
Terek Sandpiper LC Xenus cinereus Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Scolopacidae Check Image
Tufted Duck LC Aythya fuligula Animalia Chordata Anseriformes Anatidae Check Image
Western Yellow Wagtail LC Motacilla flava Animalia Chordata Passeriformes Motacillidae Check Image
Whimbrel LC Numenius phaeopus Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Scolopacidae Check Image
White breasted Woodswallow LC Artamus leucorynchus Animalia Chordata Passeriformes Artamidae Check Image
White tailed Tropicbird LC Phaethon lepturus Animalia Chordata Phaethontiformes Phaethontidae Check Image
White winged Black Tern LC Chlidonias leucopterus Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Laridae Check Image
Wood Sandpiper LC Tringa glareola Animalia Chordata Charadriiformes Scolopacidae Check Image
Yellow Bittern LC Ixobrychus sinensis Animalia Chordata Pelecaniformes Ardeidae Check Image

Mammals species list

Common namesort descending Status Taxon Kingdom Phylum Order Family
Blainville's Beaked Whale DD Mesoplodon densirostris Animalia Chordata Cetartiodactyla Ziphiidae
Blue Whale EN Balaenoptera musculus Animalia Chordata Cetartiodactyla Balaenopteridae
Bottle nosed Dolphin LC Tursiops truncatus Animalia Chordata Cetartiodactyla Delphinidae
Bridled Dolphin LC Stenella attenuata Animalia Chordata Cetartiodactyla Delphinidae
Bryde's Whale DD Balaenoptera edeni Animalia Chordata Cetartiodactyla Balaenopteridae
Bunch LC Megaptera novaeangliae Animalia Chordata Cetartiodactyla Balaenopteridae
Cachelot VU Physeter macrocephalus Animalia Chordata Cetartiodactyla Physeteridae
Chimo DD Orcinus orca Animalia Chordata Cetartiodactyla Delphinidae
Chinese White Dolphin NT Sousa chinensis Animalia Chordata Cetartiodactyla Delphinidae
Coalfish Whale EN Balaenoptera borealis Animalia Chordata Cetartiodactyla Balaenopteridae
Common Minke Whale LC Balaenoptera acutorostrata Animalia Chordata Cetartiodactyla Balaenopteridae
Cuvier's Beaked Whale LC Ziphius cavirostris Animalia Chordata Cetartiodactyla Ziphiidae
Dugong VU Dugong dugon Animalia Chordata Sirenia Dugongidae
Dwarf Sperm Whale DD Kogia sima Animalia Chordata Cetartiodactyla Physeteridae
Eastern house mouse LC Mus musculus Animalia Chordata Rodentia Muridae
Euphrosyne Dolphin LC Stenella coeruleoalba Animalia Chordata Cetartiodactyla Delphinidae
False Killer Whale DD Pseudorca crassidens Animalia Chordata Cetartiodactyla Delphinidae
Fraser s Dolphin or Sarawak Dolphin LC Lagenodelphis hosei Animalia Chordata Cetartiodactyla Delphinidae
Ginkgo toothed Beaked Whale DD Mesoplodon ginkgodens Animalia Chordata Cetartiodactyla Ziphiidae
Grey Dolphin LC Grampus griseus Animalia Chordata Cetartiodactyla Delphinidae
Himalayan Field Rat LC Rattus nitidus Animalia Chordata Rodentia Muridae
Indian Ocean Bottlenose Dolphin DD Tursiops aduncus Animalia Chordata Cetartiodactyla Delphinidae
Indo pacific Beaked Whale DD Indopacetus pacificus Animalia Chordata Cetartiodactyla Ziphiidae
Kiore LC Rattus exulans Animalia Chordata Rodentia Muridae
Long beaked Dolphin DD Stenella longirostris Animalia Chordata Cetartiodactyla Delphinidae
Mariana sheath tailed bat EN Emballonura semicaudata Animalia Chordata Chiroptera Emballonuridae
Melon headed Whale LC Peponocephala electra Animalia Chordata Cetartiodactyla Delphinidae
Omura’s Whale DD Balaenoptera omurai Animalia Chordata Cetartiodactyla Balaenopteridae
Oriental House Rat LC Rattus tanezumi Animalia Chordata Rodentia Muridae
Pacific Pilot Whale DD Globicephala macrorhynchus Animalia Chordata Cetartiodactyla Delphinidae
Palau Flying Fox NT Pteropus pelewensis Animalia Chordata Chiroptera Pteropodidae
Pygmy Killer Whale DD Feresa attenuata Animalia Chordata Cetartiodactyla Delphinidae
Pygmy Sperm Whale DD Kogia breviceps Animalia Chordata Cetartiodactyla Physeteridae
Rough toothed Dolphin LC Steno bredanensis Animalia Chordata Cetartiodactyla Delphinidae

?This content is provided by ECOLEX - the gateway to environmental law, which is a collaboration of IUCN, FAO and UNEP. The results show the country's protected area-related legislation and treaties recorded in the ECOLEX database. Click on "refine query" to modify the search.

Palau

General references for the country information and indicators:

Borrini-Feyerabend, G., Bueno, P., Hay-Edie, T., Lang, B., Rastogi, A., Sandwith, T. (2014) A Primer on Governance for Protected and Conserved Areas. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Butchart, S.H.M., Clarke, M., Smith, R.J., Sykes, R.E., Scharlemann, J.P.W., Harfoot, M., Buchanan, G.M., Angulo, A., Balmford, A., Bertzky, B., Brooks, T.M., Carpenter, K.E., Comeros-Raynal, M.T., Cornell, J., Ficetola, G.F., Fishpool, L.D.C., Fuller, R.A., Geldmann, J., Harwell, H., Hilton-Taylor, C., Hoffmann, M., Joolia, A., Joppa, L., Kingston, N., May, I., Milam, A., Polidoro, B., Ralph, G., Richman, N., Rondinini, C., Segan, D.B., Skolnik, B., Spalding, M.D., Stuart, S.N., Symes, A., Taylor, J., Visconti, P., Watson, J.E.M., Wood, L., Burgess, N.D. (2015) Shortfalls and solutions for meeting national and global conservation area targets. Conservation Letters. DOI: 10.1111/conl.12158

Dubois, G., Schulz, M., Skøien, J., Cottam, A., Temperley, W., Clerici, M., Drakou, E., van’t Klooster, J., Verbeeck, B., Palumbo, I., Derycke, P., Pekel, J.-F., Martínez-López, J., Peedell, S., Mayaux, P. (2013) An Introduction to the Digital Observatory for Protected Areas (DOPA) and the DOPA Explorer (Beta). EUR 26207 EN, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg.

Dubois, G., Bastin, L., Martínez-López, J., Cottam, A., Temperley, W., Bertzky, B., Graziano, M. (2015) The Digital Observatory for Protected Areas (DOPA) Explorer 1.0. EUR 27162 EN, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg.

Dudley, N. (editor) (2008) Guidelines for Applying Protected Area Management Categories. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Hartley, A., Nelson, A., Mayaux, P., Grégoire, J.-M. (2007) The Assessment of African Protected Areas. EUR 22780 EN, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.

IUCN and UNEP-WCMC (2013) The World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) On-line, January 2013. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK. Available at: www.protectedplanet.net

IUCN and UNEP-WCMC (2014) The World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) On-line, August 2014. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK. Available at: www.protectedplanet.net

IUCN and UNEP-WCMC (2015) The World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) On-line, July 2015. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK. Available at: www.protectedplanet.net

Juffe-Bignoli, D., Burgess, N.D., Bingham, H., Belle, E.M.S., de Lima, M.G., Deguignet, M., Bertzky, B., Milam, A.N., Martinez-Lopez, J., Lewis, E., Eassom, A., Wicander, S., Geldmann, J., van Soesbergen, A., Arnell, A.P., O’Connor, B., Park, S., Shi, Y.N., Danks, F.S., MacSharry, B., Kingston, N. (2014) Protected Planet Report 2014. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK.

Le Saout, S., Hoffmann, M., Shi, Y., Hughes, A., Bernard, C., Brooks, T.M., Bertzky, B., Butchart, S.H.M., Stuart, S.N., Badman, T., Rodrigues, A.S.L. (2013) Protected areas and effective biodiversity conservation. Science 342: 803–805.

Olson, D.M., Dinerstein, E., Wikramanayake, E.D., Burgess, N.D., Powell, G.V.N., Underwood, E.C., d’Amico, J.A., Itoua, I., Strand, H.E., Morrison, J.C., Loucks, C.J., Allnutt, T.F., Ricketts, T.H., Kura, Y., Lamoreux, J.F., Wettengel, W.W., Hedao, P., Kassem, K.R. (2001) Terrestrial ecoregions of the world: a new map of life on Earth. BioScience 51: 933–938.

Rodrigues, A.S.L., Brooks, T.M., Butchart, S.H.M., Chanson, J., Cox, N., Hoffmann, M., Stuart, S.N. (2014) Spatially explicit trends in the global conservation status of vertebrates. PLoS ONE 9(11): e113934. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0113934

Spalding, M.D., Fox, H.E., Allen, G.R., Davidson, N., Ferdaña, Z.A., Finlayson, M., Halpern, B.S., Jorge, M.A., Lombana, A., Lourie, S.A., Martin, K.D., McManus, E., Molnar, J., Recchia, C.A., Robertson, J. (2007) Marine ecoregions of the world: a bioregionalization of coast and shelf areas. BioScience 57: 573–583.

UNEP-WCMC (2015) World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) User Manual 1.0. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK.

WDPA Country Report August 2014 (from UNEP-WCMC)