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Progress Towards Protected Area Targets

Protected Area targets have been set globally, regionally, and sometimes at a country level. The global targets for all countries that are signatories to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and its Aichi Biodiversity Targets are that

at least 17 per cent of terrestrial and inland water, and 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services, are conserved through effectively and equitably managed, ecologically representative and well connected systems of protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures, and integrated into the wider landscapes and seascapes by 2020.

Regionally, the Micronesia Challenge aims to effectively conserve at least 30% of near-shore marine resources and 20% of terrestrial resources across Micronesia by 2020. An example of a country-based target is Fiji that aims to have 30% of reefs protected by 2015 and 30% of waters managed as a marine protected area network by 2020.

Below are various efforts that have been carried out to assess progress (global and regional) towards Aichi protected area targets. The paper by Govan (2009) is the most comprehensive assessment of marine protected areas (MPAs), including all LMAs in the Pacific Islands. Govan’s data has now been incorporated into the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA).  Several of the papers below attempt to assess progress towards targets which relate to factors such as management effectiveness, biodiversity coverage, governance and finance etc. 

Aichi Biodiversity Targets - Pacific Regional Workshop, July 2016

Aichi Biodiversity Targets - Pacific Regional Workshop, Fiji, July 11-13, 2016

With the assistance of staff from the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), Pacific island countries met in Fiji during July 11-13, 2016 to discuss where their countries are in regards to Aichi Targets 11 and 12.  The Pacific countries ultimately produced priorities to help achieve the Aichi Targets.  Regarding protected areas (Target 11), priorities for this Target helps achieve other Aichi Biodiversity Targets.  An analysis of the priority actions developed by the Pacific island countries reveals that when implemented, they will not only contribute to achieve elements of Target 11, but will also contribute to:


Alliance for Zero Extinction

Alliance for Zero Extinction

Formed in 2000 and launched globally in 2005, the Alliance for Zero Extinction(AZE) engages 88 non-governmental biodiversity conservation organizations working to prevent species extinctions by identifying and safeguarding the places where species evaluated to be Endangered or Critically Endangered under IUCN-World Conservation Union criteria are restricted to single remaining sites. The map below shows 587 sites for 920 species of mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles, conifers, and reef-building corals, providing a tool to defend against many of the most predictable species losses.


An Australian Coral Sea Heritage Park

Biodiversity Beyond National Jurisdiction (BBNJ)

Biodiversity Beyond National Jurisdiction (BBNJ)

1st Session of the Preparatory Committee Established by the UN General Assembly Resolution 69/292 “Development of an International Legally Binding Instrument under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea on the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Marine Biological Diversity of Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction”

28 March - 8 April 2016 | UN headquarters, New York

http://www.iisd.ca/oceans/bbnj/prepcom1/


Biodiversity Indicators Dashboard - NatureServe

The Biodiversity Indicators Dashboard

Measuring Progress and Challenges to Conservation

How successful are our efforts to conserve biodiversity? Increasingly, we need to measure how well our actions to conserve biodiversity achieve their goals. The Biodiversity Indicators Dashboard unites diverse metrics that chart progress towards global conservation goals, such as the Aichi Biodiversity Targets.


Biodiversity Indicators Partnership

Biodiversity Indicators Partnership

The CBD-mandated Biodiversity Indicators Partnership is the global initiative to promote and coordinate development and delivery of biodiversity indicators in support of the CBD, Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEA), IPBES, national and regional governments and a range of other sectors.

The Partnership brings together over forty organizations working internationally on indicator development to provide the most comprehensive information on biodiversity trends.


Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)

Dare To Be Deep - SeaStates Report on North America’s Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)

Dare To Be Deep:  SeaStates Report on North America’s Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)

Based on our analysis, our overall conclusion is that there remains a long way to go in reaching national and international targets to protect at least 10% of the ocean estate in North American countries. Overall, less than 1% of continental* North America’s ocean estate is protected and only 0.04% is in fully protected areas that scientists say offer the best hope to protect ocean ecosystems for the long term. 


Ecologically or Biologically Significant Marine Areas (EBSAs) and Commercial Activities

Ecologically or Biologically Significant Marine Areas (EBSAs) and Commercial Activities

Deep Sea Mining contract areas in ABNJ Purse seiner pollution observer incidents across region Regional fishing vessel density Purse seiner pollution observer incidents and purse seiner vessel density


Ecologically or Biologically Significant Marine Areas (EBSAs) Special places in the world’s oceans (Western South Pacific)

Fiji - Nakauvadra community based reforestation project - PDD (2013)

The Nakauvadra Community Based Reforestation Project in Fiji has been developed by Conservation International (CI), and funded through the support of FIJI Water. The project is located on the northern tip of Viti Levu in the Province of Ra. It is comprised of 1,135 ha of reforestation plots along the Southern and Northern slopes of the Nakauvadra Range, a 11,387 ha forest refuge that has been designated as a Key Biodiversity Area (KBA) and is earmarked as a priority site in Fiji’s proposed protected area network.


Fiji - Sovi Basin Protected Area

The Sovi Basin is Fiji’s largest remaining undisturbed lowland forest, providing fresh water to tens of thousands of people. The Sovi Basin is located on t​he island of Viti Levu, which is home to 590,000 people -  more than 70% of Fiji’s population. In recent years, the Sovi Basin has been under extreme threat from logging and agricultural land conversion. The loss of Fiji’s essential natural capital to logging and other pressures threatens its economy, people’s livelihoods and local culture.The Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund (CEPF) sub-regional profile analysis for Fiji classified the Sovi Basin as the highest priority landscape conservation outcome for Fiji. 

 

 

 

 

 


Forest Loss in Protected Areas and Intact Forest Landscapes: A Global Analysis

Heino M, Kummu M, Makkonen M, Mulligan M, Verburg PH, Jalava M, et al. (2015) Forest Loss in Protected Areas and Intact Forest Landscapes: A Global Analysis. PLoS ONE 10(10): e0138918. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0138918


GEF Tracking of Aichi Target 11 Progress

GEF Tracking of Aichi Target 11 Progress

Track the progress of GEF funded projects by country under Aichi targets 11 and 12 by registering for the "Project Mgt Information System" at the bottom of the GEF splash page.


Global Biodiversity Outlook

Global Biodiversity Outlook (GBO) is the flagship publication of the Convention on Biological Diversity. It is a periodic report that summarizes the latest data on the status and trends of biodiversity and draws conclusions relevant to the further implementation of the Convention.


Global Biodiversity Outlook 4: A mid-term assessment of progress towards the implementation of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020

Global Databases to Support ICCAs: a Manual for Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities

Global Databases to Support ICCAs: a Manual for Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities

The first ICCA Data Manual 1.0, which is a guide to those  providing data to the WDPA and ICCA Registry, aimed at local communities, Indigenous Peoples and those who work with them: http://wcmc.io/iccadatamanual


Guide to the linkages between the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, NBSAPs and the objectives of the Framework for Nature Conservation and Protected Areas in the Pacific Islands region 2014–2020

Important Marine Mammal Areas (IMMA)

IUCN MMPA TASK FORCE

IUCN Joint SSC/WCPA Task Force on Marine Mammal Protected Areas (MMPATF)


Integrated Biodiversity Assessment Tool for Research and Conservation Planning (IBAT)

IBAT compares the current distribution of protected areas with the distribution of Key Biodiversity Areas, displaying the extent to which Aichi Target 11 (Convention on Biological Diversity) is being delivered strategically.  By 2020, at least 17 per cent of terrestrial and inland water, and 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services, are conserved through effectively and equitably managed, ecologically representative and well connected systems of protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures, and integrated into the wider landscapes and seascapes.


Large Marine Ecosystems - Status and Trends

Making waves: The science and politics of ocean protection

Lubchenco, Jane, and Kirsten Grorud-Colvert.  2015.  Making waves: The science and politics of ocean protection. Science Vol. 350 No. 6259: 382-383.


Mapping Multilateral Environmental Agreements to the Aichi Biodiversity Targets

Mapping Multilateral Environmental Agreements to the Aichi Biodiversity Targets

Technical report:


Marine Areas Beyond National Jurisdictions - What to do?

In June, 2015 the United Nations General Assembly approved a resolution calling for the development of an international legally-binding instrument under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea on the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction 


Marine Protected Areas: Smart Investments in Ocean Health

Marine protected areas (MPAs) that effectively protect critical habitats, species and ecological functions are an essential tool for recovering, protecting and enhancing biodiversity, productivity and resilience, and for securing these benefits for current and future generations.


Marine protection targets: an updated assessment of global progress

Oonzaier, L. B. and D. Pauly. 2016.  Marine protection targets: an updated assessment of global progress. Oryx 50(1), 27–35.


National and Regional Networks of Marine Protected Areas: A Review of Progress

United National Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre. 2008. National and Regional Networks of Marine Protected Areas: A Review of Progress. Cambridge, U.K.

Prior to the Aichi targets being developed, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) required that Party states: 
  ‘establish, by 2012, comprehensive, effectively managed, and ecologically representative national and regional systems of protected areas’, and that there should be ‘effective conservation of at least 10% of each of the world's ecological regions by 2010’


National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans (NBSAPs)

Nauru - Rapid Biodiversity Assessment (BIORAP) of Republic of Nauru

Ocean Protection: Present Status and Future Possibilities

Toropova, C., Meliane, I., Laffoley, D., Matthews, E. and Spalding, M. (eds.) 2010. Ocean Protection: Present Status and Future Possibilities. Brest, France: Agence des aires marines protégées, Gland, Switzerland, Washington, DC and New York, USA: IUCN WCPA, Cambridge, UK : UNEP-WCMC, Arlington, USA: TNC, Tokyo, Japan: UNU, New York, USA: WCS.

This report provides some background to the benefits and challenges of marine protected area (MPA) strategies before presenting a summary of global progress towards the 10% challenge set by countries party to the CBD in 2006. The results, which came from data held in the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) showed that 1.17% of the global ocean was ‘protected’ in 2010


Pacific Islands Marine Portal

The Pacific Islands Marine Portal provides various information on the status of marine protected areas and much more.


Perspectives on Marine Protected Areas

Different perspectives to best manage the Pacific Ocean in the interests of all who live there.

Hilborn, R. (2016). Marine biodiversity needs more than protection. Nature, 535(7611), 224-226.
http://www.nature.com/news/policy-marine-biodiversity-needs-more-than-protection-1.20229

Charles et al. (2016). Fishing livelihoods as key to marine protected areas: insights from the World Parks Congress. Aquatic Conservation. 26, S2. 165-184
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/aqc.2648/full


Progress Towards the CBD Protected Area Management Effectiveness Targets

Coad, L. Leverington, F., Burgess, N., Cuadros, I., Geldmann, J., Marthews, T., Mee, J., Nolte, C., Stoll-Kleemann, S., Vansteelant, N., Zamora, C., Zimsky, M., Hockings, M. 2013. Progress Towards the CBD Protected Area Management Effectiveness Targets. Parks 2013 Vol 19.1

The authors used data from the IUCN Protected Areas Management Effectiveness database (PAME) combined with the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) to assess current progress towards the Convention on Biological Diversity’s (CBD) 2010 and 2015 targets for PAME, which call for at least 30 percent and 60 percent of the total area of protected areas to have been assessed in terms of management effectiveness, respectively.


Protected Area Downgrading, Downsizing, and Degazettement

Protected Area Downgrading, Downsizing, and Degazettement

We think of national parks and protected areas as permanent fixtures on the landscape, but recent research points to the widespread (but largely overlooked)  protected area downgrading, downsizing, and degazettement (PADDD). In response, PADDDtracker.org is documenting the patterns, trends, causes, and consequences of PADDD.


Protected Areas and the Global Conservation of Migratory Birds

Runge, C. A., J. E. M. Watson, S. H. M. Butchart, J. O. Hanson, H. P.  Possingham, and R.  A. Fuller. 2015 . Protected Areas and the Global Conservation of Migratory Birds. Science 350: 1255-1258.

 

 Just 9% of 1451 migratory birds are adequately covered by protected areas across all stages of their annual cycle, in comparison with 45% of nonmigratory birds.  Read the full paper published in Science.

 

   

Protected Planet Report 2012 Tracking Progress Towards Global Targets for Protected Areas

Bastian Bertzky, B., Corrigan, C., Kemsey, J., Kenney, S., Ravilious, C., Besançon, C. and Burgess, N. 2012. Protected Planet Report 2012 Tracking Progress Towards Global Targets for Protected Areas. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK.

This new initiative tracks global progress towards Target 11 of the CBD Aichi Biodiversity Target which calls for at least 17% of the world’s terrestrial areas and 10% of marine areas to be equitably managed and conserved by 2020.

It reports that 12.7% of the world’s terrestrial and inland water and 1.6% of the global ocean area, 4% of all marine area under national jurisdiction and 7.2% of all coastal waters were protected by 2010.


Protected Planet Report 2016

Protect Pitcairn: An Underwater Bounty

Ramsar - Convention on Wetlands of International Importance

Ramsar- Convention on Wetlands of International Importance

The Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, called the Ramsar Convention, is the intergovernmental treaty that provides the framework for the conservation and wise use of wetlands and their resources. 

The Convention was adopted in the Iranian city of Ramsar in 1971 and came into force in 1975. Since then, almost 90% of UN member states, from all the world’s geographic regions, have acceded to become “Contracting Parties”. 

What Pacific Island Countries are Members of Ramsar?


Regional Progress Towards Global Environmental Targets 2016

Samoa - Priority Sites for Conservation in Samoa: Key Biodiversity Areas

Samoa - Rapid biodiversity assessment of upland Savai'i, Samoa

Samoa - Samoa 2012 Environmental Outlook

Scientific Support for Large Marine Protected Areas (MPA)

A Rising Tide

A Statement of Support by Scientists for the Designation of the First Generation of Great Marine Parks Around the Globe


Shark Sanctuaries Around the World

State of Conservation in Oceania (SOCO Reports)

Status and Potential of Locally-Managed Marine Areas in the South Pacific: Meeting nature conservation and sustainable livelihood targets through wide-spread implementation of LMMAs

Status and Potential of Locally-Managed Marine Areas in the South Pacific: Meeting Nature Conservation and Sustainable Livelihood Targets through Wide-Spread Implementation of LMMAs.

Govan, H. et al. 2009. Status and Potential of Locally-Managed Marine Areas in the South Pacific: Meeting Nature Conservation and Sustainable Livelihood Targets through Wide-Spread Implementation of LMMAs. Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme/Worldwide Fund for Nature/WorldFish-Reefbase/Coral Reef Initiative of the South Pacific.

Govan and co-authors updated information from previous studies to develop a regional inventory of locally managed marine areas (LMMAs) current up to January 2008, which was compared with data provided by the World Database of Protected Areas (WDPA) and used in place of “official” country lists.


Status of Large Marine Protected Areas in the Pacific

Keep current on the expansion of large marine protected areas (MPA)in the Pacific.  MPAtlas is a good source of information.  Big Ocean is also a source of information on the status of large marine protected areas.


Status of Policy and Target Development and Implementation for Marine Protected Areas/Marine Managed Areas in the Pacific Islands Region - A Preliminary Assessment and Future Directions

Benzaken, D., Miller-Taei, S.,  Wood, L. 2007. Status of Policy and Target Development and Implementation for Marine Protected Areas/Marine Managed Areas in the Pacific Islands Region - A Preliminary Assessment and Future Directions