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Progress Towards Protected Area Targets
Protected Area targets have been set globally, regionally, and sometimes at a country level. The global targets for all countries that are signatories to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and its Aichi Biodiversity Targets are that
at least 17 per cent of terrestrial and inland water, and 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services, are conserved through effectively and equitably managed, ecologically representative and well connected systems of protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures, and integrated into the wider landscapes and seascapes by 2020.
Regionally, the Micronesia Challenge aims to effectively conserve at least 30% of near-shore marine resources and 20% of terrestrial resources across Micronesia by 2020. An example of a country-based target is Fiji that aims to have 30% of reefs protected by 2015 and 30% of waters managed as a marine protected area network by 2020.
Below are various efforts that have been carried out to assess progress (global and regional) towards Aichi protected area targets. The paper by Govan (2009) is the most comprehensive assessment of marine protected areas (MPAs), including all LMAs in the Pacific Islands. Govan’s data has now been incorporated into the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA). Several of the papers below attempt to assess progress towards targets which relate to factors such as management effectiveness, biodiversity coverage, governance and finance etc.
Aichi Biodiversity Targets - Pacific Regional Workshop, Fiji, July 11-13, 2016
With the assistance of staff from the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), Pacific island countries met in Fiji during July 11-13, 2016 to discuss where their countries are in regards to Aichi Targets 11 and 12. The Pacific countries ultimately produced priorities to help achieve the Aichi Targets. Regarding protected areas (Target 11), priorities for this Target helps achieve other Aichi Biodiversity Targets. An analysis of the priority actions developed by the Pacific island countries reveals that when implemented, they will not only contribute to achieve elements of Target 11, but will also contribute to:
Formed in 2000 and launched globally in 2005, the Alliance for Zero Extinction(AZE) engages 88 non-governmental biodiversity conservation organizations working to prevent species extinctions by identifying and safeguarding the places where species evaluated to be Endangered or Critically Endangered under IUCN-World Conservation Union criteria are restricted to single remaining sites. The map below shows 587 sites for 920 species of mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles, conifers, and reef-building corals, providing a tool to defend against many of the most predictable species losses.
Protected areas continue to grow in importance as a land-use. The latest assessment lists over 200,000 protected
areas, covering 15.4% of the land and inland waters and 8.4%of seas within national jurisdiction. This brings within reach
the Convention on Biological Diversity’s target of 17% for terrestrial protected areas and 10% for marine protected
areas by 2020. Percentage coverage is easiest to track but improving ecological representation, management effectiveness
and connectivity are perhaps more important to the success of protected areas, although more difficult to measure.
This is the final report prepared by the Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP) for submission to the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Papua New Guinea Conservation and Environment Protection Authority (CEPA) in relation to the 2016-17 assessment of the management effectiveness of Papua New Guinea's protected areas. All the 57 gazetted protected areas in PNG are covered in this report, along with one proposed protected area that is in the process of gazettal.
Biodiversity Beyond National Jurisdiction (BBNJ)
1st Session of the Preparatory Committee Established by the UN General Assembly Resolution 69/292 “Development of an International Legally Binding Instrument under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea on the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Marine Biological Diversity of Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction”
28 March - 8 April 2016 | UN headquarters, New York
Measuring Progress and Challenges to Conservation
How successful are our efforts to conserve biodiversity? Increasingly, we need to measure how well our actions to conserve biodiversity achieve their goals. The Biodiversity Indicators Dashboard unites diverse metrics that chart progress towards global conservation goals, such as the Aichi Biodiversity Targets.
The CBD-mandated Biodiversity Indicators Partnership is the global initiative to promote and coordinate development and delivery of biodiversity indicators in support of the CBD, Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEA), IPBES, national and regional governments and a range of other sectors.
The Partnership brings together over forty organizations working internationally on indicator development to provide the most comprehensive information on biodiversity trends.
“Contribution of Marine Conservation Agreements to Biodiversity Protection, Fisheries Management and Sustainable Financing in Fiji.”
The report documents the degree and scale to which Marine Conservation Agreements (MCAs) are being used in coastal waters in Fiji. The study focuses on partnerships involving local communities and the tourism sector. The study documented tourism-related MCAs included an estimated 266.25 km2 (26,625 ha) of MPAs, of which 210 km2 (21,000 ha) comprised deep water and offshore reefs within two large no-take reserves (Namena Marine Reserve and Vatu-i-Ra Conservation Park), and the remaining 56.25 km2 (5,625 ha) comprised mostly shallow fringing reefs and slopes. The report highlights there are many more MPAs out there (especially informal ones), that are probably not being recognized or included in our national accounting and reporting.
Based on our analysis, our overall conclusion is that there remains a long way to go in reaching national and international targets to protect at least 10% of the ocean estate in North American countries. Overall, less than 1% of continental* North America’s ocean estate is protected and only 0.04% is in fully protected areas that scientists say offer the best hope to protect ocean ecosystems for the long term.
Nations of the world have committed to a number of goals and targets to address the global
environmental challenges humanity faces. Protected areas have for centuries been a key strategy in
conservation and play a major role in addressing current challenges. The most important tool used
to track progress on protected area commitments is the World Database on Protected Areas
(WDPA). Periodic assessments of the world’s protected area estate show steady growth over the last
two decades. However, the current method, which uses the latest version of the WDPA, does not
show the true dynamic nature of protected areas over time, nor does it provide information on sites
Ecologically or Biologically Significant Marine Areas (EBSAs) and Commercial ActivitiesDeep Sea Mining contract areas in ABNJ Purse seiner pollution observer incidents across region Regional fishing vessel density Purse seiner pollution observer incidents and purse seiner vessel density
Ecologically or Biologically Significant Marine Areas (EBSAs) Special places in the world’s oceans (Western South Pacific)
The Nakauvadra Community Based Reforestation Project in Fiji has been developed by Conservation International (CI), and funded through the support of FIJI Water. The project is located on the northern tip of Viti Levu in the Province of Ra. It is comprised of 1,135 ha of reforestation plots along the Southern and Northern slopes of the Nakauvadra Range, a 11,387 ha forest refuge that has been designated as a Key Biodiversity Area (KBA) and is earmarked as a priority site in Fiji’s proposed protected area network.
The Sovi Basin is Fiji’s largest remaining undisturbed lowland forest, providing fresh water to tens of thousands of people. The Sovi Basin is located on the island of Viti Levu, which is home to 590,000 people - more than 70% of Fiji’s population. In recent years, the Sovi Basin has been under extreme threat from logging and agricultural land conversion. The loss of Fiji’s essential natural capital to logging and other pressures threatens its economy, people’s livelihoods and local culture.The Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund (CEPF) sub-regional profile analysis for Fiji classified the Sovi Basin as the highest priority landscape conservation outcome for Fiji.
Heino M, Kummu M, Makkonen M, Mulligan M, Verburg PH, Jalava M, et al. (2015) Forest Loss in Protected Areas and Intact Forest Landscapes: A Global Analysis. PLoS ONE 10(10): e0138918. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0138918
Global Biodiversity Outlook (GBO) is the flagship publication of the Convention on Biological Diversity. It is a periodic report that summarizes the latest data on the status and trends of biodiversity and draws conclusions relevant to the further implementation of the Convention.
Global Biodiversity Outlook 4: A mid-term assessment of progress towards the implementation of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020
The first ICCA Data Manual 1.0, which is a guide to those providing data to the WDPA and ICCA Registry, aimed at local communities, Indigenous Peoples and those who work with them: http://wcmc.io/iccadatamanual
Guide to the linkages between the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, NBSAPs and the objectives of the Framework for Nature Conservation and Protected Areas in the Pacific Islands region 2014–2020
IBAT compares the current distribution of protected areas with the distribution of Key Biodiversity Areas, displaying the extent to which Aichi Target 11 (Convention on Biological Diversity) is being delivered strategically. By 2020, at least 17 per cent of terrestrial and inland water, and 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services, are conserved through effectively and equitably managed, ecologically representative and well connected systems of protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures, and integrated into the wider landscapes and seascapes.
This publication presents condensed “Lessons Learned” from five years implementation of a project across four countries in the South Pacific Island Region (Fiji, Samoa, Vanuatu and Nuie) aimed at strengthening biodiversity conservation and reduction of forest and land degradation. Developing new protected areas to contribute to the achievement of Aichi target 11 and enhancing sustainable livelihoods of local communities living in and around existing or potential protected areas was a central objective. The publication shares the experiences of working with a range of stakeholders whilst implementing this project within the South Pacific Islands' socio-economic and cultural/traditional context.
In June, 2015 the United Nations General Assembly approved a resolution calling for the development of an international legally-binding instrument under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea on the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction
Marine protected areas (MPAs) that effectively protect critical habitats, species and ecological functions are an essential tool for recovering, protecting and enhancing biodiversity, productivity and resilience, and for securing these benefits for current and future generations.
United National Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre. 2008. National and Regional Networks of Marine Protected Areas: A Review of Progress. Cambridge, U.K.
Prior to the Aichi targets being developed, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) required that Party states:
‘establish, by 2012, comprehensive, effectively managed, and ecologically representative national and regional systems of protected areas’, and that there should be ‘effective conservation of at least 10% of each of the world's ecological regions by 2010’
Toropova, C., Meliane, I., Laffoley, D., Matthews, E. and Spalding, M. (eds.) 2010. Ocean Protection: Present Status and Future Possibilities. Brest, France: Agence des aires marines protégées, Gland, Switzerland, Washington, DC and New York, USA: IUCN WCPA, Cambridge, UK : UNEP-WCMC, Arlington, USA: TNC, Tokyo, Japan: UNU, New York, USA: WCS.
This report provides some background to the benefits and challenges of marine protected area (MPA) strategies before presenting a summary of global progress towards the 10% challenge set by countries party to the CBD in 2006. The results, which came from data held in the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) showed that 1.17% of the global ocean was ‘protected’ in 2010
Different perspectives to best manage the Pacific Ocean in the interests of all who live there.
Hilborn, R. (2016). Marine biodiversity needs more than protection. Nature, 535(7611), 224-226.
Charles et al. (2016). Fishing livelihoods as key to marine protected areas: insights from the World Parks Congress. Aquatic Conservation. 26, S2. 165-184
Coad, L. Leverington, F., Burgess, N., Cuadros, I., Geldmann, J., Marthews, T., Mee, J., Nolte, C., Stoll-Kleemann, S., Vansteelant, N., Zamora, C., Zimsky, M., Hockings, M. 2013. Progress Towards the CBD Protected Area Management Effectiveness Targets. Parks 2013 Vol 19.1
The authors used data from the IUCN Protected Areas Management Effectiveness database (PAME) combined with the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) to assess current progress towards the Convention on Biological Diversity’s (CBD) 2010 and 2015 targets for PAME, which call for at least 30 percent and 60 percent of the total area of protected areas to have been assessed in terms of management effectiveness, respectively.
We think of national parks and protected areas as permanent fixtures on the landscape, but recent research points to the widespread (but largely overlooked) protected area downgrading, downsizing, and degazettement (PADDD). In response, PADDDtracker.org is documenting the patterns, trends, causes, and consequences of PADDD.
Runge, C. A., J. E. M. Watson, S. H. M. Butchart, J. O. Hanson, H. P. Possingham, and R. A. Fuller. 2015 . Protected Areas and the Global Conservation of Migratory Birds. Science 350: 1255-1258.
Just 9% of 1451 migratory birds are adequately covered by protected areas across all stages of their annual cycle, in comparison with 45% of nonmigratory birds. Read the full paper published in Science.
This is the first of a new series of dialogues from Equilibrium Research, in light of current opportunities and pressures on protected areas, building up to the revision of the Convention on Biological Diversity’s biodiversity targets in 2020, the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals and wider patterns of economic and social development. The views are those of the authors and represent no other organisation or institution.
Dialogues are not referenced for reasons of space; key sources are available on request. The ideas outlined here build on our research since our founding in 1991, and in conversations and interaction with people throughout the world.
Bastian Bertzky, B., Corrigan, C., Kemsey, J., Kenney, S., Ravilious, C., Besançon, C. and Burgess, N. 2012. Protected Planet Report 2012 Tracking Progress Towards Global Targets for Protected Areas. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK.
This new initiative tracks global progress towards Target 11 of the CBD Aichi Biodiversity Target which calls for at least 17% of the world’s terrestrial areas and 10% of marine areas to be equitably managed and conserved by 2020.
It reports that 12.7% of the world’s terrestrial and inland water and 1.6% of the global ocean area, 4% of all marine area under national jurisdiction and 7.2% of all coastal waters were protected by 2010.
The Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, called the Ramsar Convention, is the intergovernmental treaty that provides the framework for the conservation and wise use of wetlands and their resources.
The Convention was adopted in the Iranian city of Ramsar in 1971 and came into force in 1975. Since then, almost 90% of UN member states, from all the world’s geographic regions, have acceded to become “Contracting Parties”.