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Progress Towards Protected Area Targets
Protected Area targets have been set globally, regionally, and sometimes at a country level. The global targets for all countries that are signatories to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and its Aichi Biodiversity Targets are that
at least 17 per cent of terrestrial and inland water, and 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services, are conserved through effectively and equitably managed, ecologically representative and well connected systems of protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures, and integrated into the wider landscapes and seascapes by 2020.
Regionally, the Micronesia Challenge aims to effectively conserve at least 30% of near-shore marine resources and 20% of terrestrial resources across Micronesia by 2020. An example of a country-based target is Fiji that aims to have 30% of reefs protected by 2015 and 30% of waters managed as a marine protected area network by 2020.
Below are various efforts that have been carried out to assess progress (global and regional) towards Aichi protected area targets. The paper by Govan (2009) is the most comprehensive assessment of marine protected areas (MPAs), including all LMAs in the Pacific Islands. Govan’s data has now been incorporated into the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA). Several of the papers below attempt to assess progress towards targets which relate to factors such as management effectiveness, biodiversity coverage, governance and finance etc.
Status and Potential of Locally-Managed Marine Areas in the South Pacific: Meeting nature conservation and sustainable livelihood targets through wide-spread implementation of LMMAs
Status and Potential of Locally-Managed Marine Areas in the South Pacific: Meeting Nature Conservation and Sustainable Livelihood Targets through Wide-Spread Implementation of LMMAs.
Govan, H. et al. 2009. Status and Potential of Locally-Managed Marine Areas in the South Pacific: Meeting Nature Conservation and Sustainable Livelihood Targets through Wide-Spread Implementation of LMMAs. Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme/Worldwide Fund for Nature/WorldFish-Reefbase/Coral Reef Initiative of the South Pacific.
Govan and co-authors updated information from previous studies to develop a regional inventory of locally managed marine areas (LMMAs) current up to January 2008, which was compared with data provided by the World Database of Protected Areas (WDPA) and used in place of “official” country lists.
Status of Policy and Target Development and Implementation for Marine Protected Areas/Marine Managed Areas in the Pacific Islands Region - A Preliminary Assessment and Future Directions
In decision X/2, the tenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties, held from 18 to 29 October 2010, in Nagoya, Aichi Prefecture, Japan, adopted a revised and updated Strategic Plan for Biodiversity, including the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, for the 2011-2020 period.
This plan provides an overarching framework on biodiversity, not only for the biodiversity-related conventions, but for the entire United Nations system and all other partners engaged in biodiversity management and policy development.
The PNG-METT: A method for assessing effectiveness in Papua New Guinea’s protected areas, August 2017
In 2015–2017, the Government of Papua New Guinea (PNG), through its Conservation and Environmental Protection Authority (CEPA) and with the support of United Nations Development Program (UNDP), organised an evaluation of its protected areas, as part of the process to improve management effectiveness. PNG’s Policy on Protected Areas commits to regular evaluation of management effectiveness and to taking remedial action to improve effectiveness over time. ‘Management effectiveness of Protected Areas will be regularly evaluated on a national basis, and improvements will be put into place based on assessment results.
The authors contend in this National Geographic Ocean Views blog that most marine species are not well represented within MPAs and several hundred species are not covered at all. The blog summarizes their article in Natures's Scientific Reports:
NOAA's National Ocean Service explains that marine protected areas (MPAs) in the U.S. come in a variety of forms and are established and managed by all levels of government. There are marine sanctuaries, estuarine research reserves, ocean parks, and marine wildlife refuges. Each of these sites differ. MPAs may be established to protect ecosystems, preserve cultural resources such as shipwrecks and archaeological sites, or sustain fisheries production.
The World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) is the most comprehensive global spatial dataset on marine and terrestrial protected areas available.
Protected areas are internationally recognised as major tools in conserving species and ecosystems. Up to date information on protected areas is essential to enable a wide range of conservation and development activities.
· The WDPA User Manual 1.3 is now available in English, French and Spanish: http://wcmc.io/Manual_ver1_3
· Le Manuel d’utilisation de la Base de données mondiale sur les aires protégées 1.3 est maintenant disponible en anglais, français et espagnol: http://wcmc.io/Manual_ver1_3
The IUCN World Heritage Outlook provides an independent assessment of the state of conservation of our natural heritage and its potential to be maintained in the future. It shows World Heritage sites have a role in demonstrating excellence and becoming leaders in nature conservation. Simply explore the map above or use the filtered search to discover more about the conservation outlook of natural World Heritage sites.