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Protected Area targets have been set globally, regionally, and sometimes at a country level. The global targets for all countries that are signatories to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and its Aichi Biodiversity Targets are that

at least 17 per cent of terrestrial and inland water, and 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services, are conserved through effectively and equitably managed, ecologically representative and well connected systems of protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures, and integrated into the wider landscapes and seascapes by 2020.

Regionally, the Micronesia Challenge aims to effectively conserve at least 30% of near-shore marine resources and 20% of terrestrial resources across Micronesia by 2020. An example of a country-based target is Fiji that aims to have 30% of reefs protected by 2015 and 30% of waters managed as a marine protected area network by 2020.

Below are various efforts that have been carried out to assess progress (global and regional) towards Aichi protected area targets. The paper by Govan (2009) is the most comprehensive assessment of marine protected areas (MPAs), including all LMAs in the Pacific Islands. Govan’s data has now been incorporated into the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA).  Several of the papers below attempt to assess progress towards targets which relate to factors such as management effectiveness, biodiversity coverage, governance and finance etc. 

'The Future is Now: Science for Sustainable Development' - Global Sustainable Development Report 2019

Despite considerable efforts these past four years, we are not on track to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030. We must dramatically step up the pace of implementation as we enter a decisive decade for people and the planet.

A Global Standard for the Identification of Key Biodiversity Areas

The KBA Standard is formally taken to include definitions, the criteria and thresholds, and delineation procedures.

A spatial overview of the global importance of Indigenous lands for conservation

Understanding the scale, location and nature conservation values of the lands over which Indigenous Peoples exercise traditional rights is central to implementation of several global conservation and climate agreements.

About the Pacific Islands Protected Area Portal (PIPAP)

The PIPAP Vision

To provide a doorway through which Pacific Islands protected area practitioners can share expertise and benefit from opportunities

 

Aichi Biodiversity Targets - Pacific Regional Workshop, July 2016

Aichi Biodiversity Targets - Pacific Regional Workshop, Fiji, July 11-13, 2016

Assessment of post -2010 National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans

National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans (NBSAPs) were always seen as a key instrument for national implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity and other biodiversity-related multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs).

Biodiversity Beyond National Jurisdiction (BBNJ)

Biodiversity Beyond National Jurisdiction (BBNJ)

Compendium of guidance for capturing, managing and using biodiversity-related data and information

This compendium of guidance provides details of information sources for capturing, managing, using, and sharing data, all in the context of biodiversity and ecosystem services.

Compendium of guidance on achieving synergies among biodiversity-related conventions at the national level

The purpose of the document is to help increase access to existing guidance material on synergies among biodiversity-related conventions and to provide a basis for identifying gaps in the available guidance.

Designing protected area networks that translate international conservation commitments into national action

 Here we undertake a cost-effective approach to protected area planning in Guyana that accounts for in-country conditions.

Ecologically or Biologically Significant Marine Areas (EBSAs) and Commercial Activities

Ecologically or Biologically Significant Marine Areas (EBSAs) and Commercial Activities

Final Evaluation of the project “Forestry and Protected Area Management in Fiji, Samoa, Vanuatu and Niue (GEFPAS-FPAM)”

This report presents the findings of the Final Evaluation of the six year1 Global Environment Facility – Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (GEF-FAO) Forest Protected Area Management (FPAM) in Fiji, Samoa, Vanuatu and Niue project, which was implemented between January 2012 a

First Quadrennial Pacific Sustainable Development : Executive Summary 2018

This Pacific Sustainable Development Report 2018 (PSDR) is the first quadrennial Pacific progress report on sustainable development. The report outlines high level trends on progress to date, as well as baseline information.

Forest Loss in Protected Areas and Intact Forest Landscapes: A Global Analysis

Heino M, Kummu M, Makkonen M, Mulligan M, Verburg PH, Jalava M, et al.

Gaps in Protection of Important Ocean Areas: A Spatial Meta-Analysis of Ten Global Mapping Initiatives

To safeguard biodiversity effectively, marine protected areas (MPAs) should be sited using the best available science. There are numerous ongoing United Nations and nongovernmental initiatives to map globally important marine areas.

GEF Tracking of Aichi Target 11 Progress

GEF Tracking of Aichi Target 11 Progress

Track the progress of GEF funded projects by country under Aichi targets 11 and 12 by registering for the "Project Mgt Information System" at the bottom of the GEF splash page.

Global Biodiversity Outlook

Global Biodiversity Outlook (GBO) is the flagship publication of the Convention on Biological Diversity.

Global trends in protected area connectivity from 2010 to 2018

Connectivity of protected areas (PAs) is needed to ensure the long-term persistence of biodiversity and ecosystem service delivery. The Convention on Biological Diversity agreed in 2010 to have 17% of land covered by wellconnected PA systems by 2020 (Aichi Target 11).

Governance, Equity and the Green List

Good governance is fundamental to effective protected area (PA) design, planning, and management operations, and the degree to which these are equitable in terms of the recognition and engagement of key actors, and the distribution of benefits and costs/burdens.

Guidelines for privately protected areas

These guidelines, prepared by the Privately Protected Areas and Nature Stewardship Specialist Group of the IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas, offer a range of best practices for establishing PPAs and securing effective longterm conservation on private properties.

Integrated Biodiversity Assessment Tool for Research and Conservation Planning (IBAT)

IBAT compares the current distribution of protected areas with the distribution of Key Biodiversity Areas, displaying the extent to which Aichi Target 11 (Convention on Biological Diversity) is being delivered strategically.  By 2020, at least 17 per cent of terrestrial and inland water, and 10 p

Mainstreaming biodiversity: A review of national strategies

Biodiversity is suffering dramatic declines across the globe, threatening the ability of ecosystems to provide the services on which humanity depends. Mainstreaming biodiversity into the plans, strategies and policies of different economic sectors is key to reversing these declines.

Making waves: The science and politics of ocean protection

Lubchenco, Jane, and Kirsten Grorud-Colvert.  2015.  Making waves: The science and politics of ocean protection. Science Vol. 350 No. 6259: 382-383.

Mapping Multilateral Environmental Agreements to the Aichi Biodiversity Targets

Mapping Multilateral Environmental Agreements to the Aichi Biodiversity Targets

Technical report:

Marine Areas Beyond National Jurisdictions - What to do?

In June, 2015 the United Nations General Assembly approved a resolution calling for the development of an international legally-binding

Marine Protected Areas: Smart Investments in Ocean Health

Marine protected areas (MPAs) that effectively protect critical habitats, species and ecological functions are an essential tool for recovering, protecting and enhancing biodiversity, productivity and resilience, and for securing these benefits for current and future generations.

National and Regional Networks of Marine Protected Areas: A Review of Progress

United National Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre. 2008. National and Regional Networks of Marine Protected Areas: A Review of Progress. Cambridge, U.K.

Ocean Protection: Present Status and Future Possibilities

Toropova, C., Meliane, I., Laffoley, D., Matthews, E. and Spalding, M.

Pacific Islands Marine Portal

The Pacific Islands Marine Portal provides various information on the status of marine protected areas and much more.

Perspectives on Marine Protected Areas

Different perspectives to best manage the Pacific Ocean in the interests of all who live there.

Priority Sites for Conservation in the Cook Islands: Key Biodiversity Areas and Important Bird Areas

In 2010, with the assistance of Conservation International and the Critical Ecosystems Partnership Fund, Birdlife International in partnership with the Cook Islands environmental NGO Te Ipukarea Society commenced a project to identify and delineate KBAs and IBAs in the Cook Islands.

Progress Towards the CBD Protected Area Management Effectiveness Targets

Coad, L. Leverington, F., Burgess, N., Cuadros, I., Geldmann, J., Marthews, T., Mee, J., Nolte, C., Stoll-Kleemann, S., Vansteelant, N., Zamora, C., Zimsky, M., Hockings, M.

Protected area connectivity: Shortfalls in global targets and country-level priorities

Connectivity of protected areas (PAs) is crucial for meeting their conservation goals.

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