Protected Area Targets
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Protected Area targets have been set globally, regionally, and sometimes at a country level. The global targets for all countries that are signatories to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and its Aichi Biodiversity Targets are that
at least 17 per cent of terrestrial and inland water, and 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services, are conserved through effectively and equitably managed, ecologically representative and well connected systems of protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures, and integrated into the wider landscapes and seascapes by 2020.
Regionally, the Micronesia Challenge aims to effectively conserve at least 30% of near-shore marine resources and 20% of terrestrial resources across Micronesia by 2020. An example of a country-based target is Fiji that aims to have 30% of reefs protected by 2015 and 30% of waters managed as a marine protected area network by 2020.
Below are various efforts that have been carried out to assess progress (global and regional) towards Aichi protected area targets. The paper by Govan (2009) is the most comprehensive assessment of marine protected areas (MPAs), including all LMAs in the Pacific Islands. Govan’s data has now been incorporated into the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA). Several of the papers below attempt to assess progress towards targets which relate to factors such as management effectiveness, biodiversity coverage, governance and finance etc.
The KBA Standard is formally taken to include definitions, the criteria and thresholds, and delineation procedures. It can be used by national constituencies to identify sites contributing significantly to the global persistence of biodiversity in terrestrial, inland water and marine environments. It is important that this Standard remains stable for a period of time to enable comparisons of sites qualifying as KBAs in different regions and over time. It is recognised, however, that the criteria and thresholds may need revision in the future as experience accumulates in their application and technological advances improve our measurement and understanding of biodiversity.
Understanding the scale, location and nature conservation values of the lands over which Indigenous Peoples exercise traditional rights is central to implementation of several global conservation and climate agreements. However, spatial information on Indigenous lands has never been aggregated globally. Here, using publicly available geospatial resources, we show that Indigenous Peoples manage or have tenure rights over at least ~38 million km2 in 87 countries or politically distinct areas on all inhabited continents. This represents over a quarter of the world’s land surface, and intersects about 40% of all terrestrial protected areas and ecologically intact landscapes (for example, boreal and tropical primary forests, savannas and marshes).
Aichi Biodiversity Targets - Pacific Regional Workshop, Fiji, July 11-13, 2016
With the assistance of staff from the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), Pacific island countries met in Fiji during July 11-13, 2016 to discuss where their countries are in regards to Aichi Targets 11 and 12. The Pacific countries ultimately produced priorities to help achieve the Aichi Targets. Regarding protected areas (Target 11), priorities for this Target helps achieve other Aichi Biodiversity Targets. An analysis of the priority actions developed by the Pacific island countries reveals that when implemented, they will not only contribute to achieve elements of Target 11, but will also contribute to:
Formed in 2000 and launched globally in 2005, the Alliance for Zero Extinction(AZE) engages 88 non-governmental biodiversity conservation organizations working to prevent species extinctions by identifying and safeguarding the places where species evaluated to be Endangered or Critically Endangered under IUCN-World Conservation Union criteria are restricted to single remaining sites. The map below shows 587 sites for 920 species of mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles, conifers, and reef-building corals, providing a tool to defend against many of the most predictable species losses.
National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans (NBSAPs) were always seen as a key instrument for national implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity and other biodiversity-related multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs). This role was reinforced by the adoption, at the tenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity in 2010, of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020, including the Aichi 5 Biodiversity Targets.1 Aichi Target 17 reads “By 2015 each Party has developed, adopted as a policy instrument, and has commenced implementing an effective, participatory and updated national biodiversity strategy and action plan”.
Biodiversity Beyond National Jurisdiction (BBNJ)
1st Session of the Preparatory Committee Established by the UN General Assembly Resolution 69/292 “Development of an International Legally Binding Instrument under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea on the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Marine Biological Diversity of Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction”
28 March - 8 April 2016 | UN headquarters, New York
Measuring Progress and Challenges to Conservation
How successful are our efforts to conserve biodiversity? Increasingly, we need to measure how well our actions to conserve biodiversity achieve their goals. The Biodiversity Indicators Dashboard unites diverse metrics that chart progress towards global conservation goals, such as the Aichi Biodiversity Targets.
The CBD-mandated Biodiversity Indicators Partnership is the global initiative to promote and coordinate development and delivery of biodiversity indicators in support of the CBD, Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEA), IPBES, national and regional governments and a range of other sectors.
The Partnership brings together over forty organizations working internationally on indicator development to provide the most comprehensive information on biodiversity trends.
This compendium of guidance provides details of information sources for capturing, managing, using, and sharing data, all in the context of biodiversity and ecosystem services. The primary aim of this document is to assist the staff of national governments and non-governmental organisations who are responsible for the capture, management and use of data and information with respect to the biodiversity-related conventions. This compendium in particular aims to support efforts towards improving the coordination of data and information systems to help governments maximise cost effectiveness when reporting on different biodiversity-related conventions.
Compendium of guidance on achieving synergies among biodiversity-related conventions at the national level
The purpose of the document is to help increase access to existing guidance material on synergies among biodiversity-related conventions and to provide a basis for identifying gaps in the available guidance. As such, this report and any future online resources derived from it are primarily intended for informing the national focal points and management authorities responsible for the implementation of biodiversity-related conventions at the national level. Additionally, this can be of use to focal points of related conventions (e.g. regional biodiversity conventions) and other stakeholders.
This compendium is a compilation of available global databases. It provides a basis for increasing access to these databases through the CBD Clearing-House Mechanism and other appropriate tools, and is intended to direct Convention Parties to data and information that can inform the effective implementation of the conventions. As a next step it is intended to make this document a living document and therefore to update it when additional material becomes available and to turn the information into a searchable database online.
Based on our analysis, our overall conclusion is that there remains a long way to go in reaching national and international targets to protect at least 10% of the ocean estate in North American countries. Overall, less than 1% of continental* North America’s ocean estate is protected and only 0.04% is in fully protected areas that scientists say offer the best hope to protect ocean ecosystems for the long term.
Designing protected area networks that translate international conservation commitments into national action
Here we undertake a cost-effective approach to protected area planning in Guyana that accounts for in-country conditions. To do this we conducted a stakeholder-led spatial conservation prioritisation based on meeting targets for 17 vegetation types and 329 vertebrate species, while minimising opportunity costs for forestry, mining, agriculture and urbanisation. Our analysis identifies 3 million ha of priority areas for conservation, helping inform government plans to double the current protected area network from 8.5 to 17%. As part of this, we also develop a new technique to prioritise engagement with local communities whose lands are identified as important to conservation.
Ecologically or Biologically Significant Marine Areas (EBSAs) Special places in the world’s oceans (Western South Pacific)
Ecologically or Biologically Significant Marine Areas (EBSAs) and Commercial ActivitiesDeep Sea Mining contract areas in ABNJ Purse seiner pollution observer incidents across region Regional fishing vessel density Purse seiner pollution observer incidents and purse seiner vessel density
This Pacific Sustainable Development Report 2018 (PSDR) is the first quadrennial Pacific progress report on sustainable development. The report outlines high level trends on progress to date, as well as baseline information. The regional report complements national monitoring and reporting and since 2015, three Pacific Islands Forum member countries (Samoa, Kiribati and Australia), have completed their Voluntary National Review processes, and reported to the High Level Political Forum on Sustainable Development. (HLPF). Fiji, Nauru, New Zealand, Palau, Tonga and Vanuatu are reporting to the 2019 HLPF on sustainable development. The PSDR 2018 highlights the need for increasing the pace of progress towards the achievement of the 2030 Agenda.
Heino M, Kummu M, Makkonen M, Mulligan M, Verburg PH, Jalava M, et al. (2015) Forest Loss in Protected Areas and Intact Forest Landscapes: A Global Analysis. PLoS ONE 10(10): e0138918. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0138918
Global Biodiversity Outlook (GBO) is the flagship publication of the Convention on Biological Diversity. It is a periodic report that summarizes the latest data on the status and trends of biodiversity and draws conclusions relevant to the further implementation of the Convention.
Global Biodiversity Outlook 4: A mid-term assessment of progress towards the implementation of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020
The first ICCA Data Manual 1.0, which is a guide to those providing data to the WDPA and ICCA Registry, aimed at local communities, Indigenous Peoples and those who work with them: http://wcmc.io/iccadatamanual
Connectivity of protected areas (PAs) is needed to ensure the long-term persistence of biodiversity and ecosystem service delivery. The Convention on Biological Diversity agreed in 2010 to have 17% of land covered by wellconnected PA systems by 2020 (Aichi Target 11). We here globally assess, for all countries, the trends in terrestrial PA connectivity every other year from 2010 to 2018 using the ProtConn indicator, which quantifies how well the PA systems are designed to support connectivity. The percentage of protected connected land (ProtConn) has increased globally from 6.5% in 2010 to 7.7% in 2018. Oceania experienced the largest recent increase in PA connectivity, whereas Asia is the only content with a lower ProtConn in 2018 than in 2010.
Guide to the linkages between the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, NBSAPs and the objectives of the Framework for Nature Conservation and Protected Areas in the Pacific Islands region 2014–2020
These guidelines, prepared by the Privately Protected Areas and Nature Stewardship Specialist Group of the IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas, offer a range of best practices for establishing PPAs and securing effective longterm conservation on private properties. They offer specific guidance applicable to areas under private governance and management, including appropriate legal and institutional arrangements and useful insights into funding mechanisms. These guidelines discuss different options and instruments for establishing and managing PPAs, drawing on a diversity of PPAs from around the world.
IBAT compares the current distribution of protected areas with the distribution of Key Biodiversity Areas, displaying the extent to which Aichi Target 11 (Convention on Biological Diversity) is being delivered strategically. By 2020, at least 17 per cent of terrestrial and inland water, and 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services, are conserved through effectively and equitably managed, ecologically representative and well connected systems of protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures, and integrated into the wider landscapes and seascapes.
Biodiversity is suffering dramatic declines across the globe, threatening the ability of ecosystems to provide the services on which humanity depends. Mainstreaming biodiversity into the plans, strategies and policies of different economic sectors is key to reversing these declines. The importance of this mainstreaming is recognized by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and its Aichi targets. Individual countries can implement the goals of the CBD through their National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans (NBSAPs), which aim to, inter alia, support the mainstreaming of biodiversity into the policies of key economic sectors, such as agriculture, forestry and fisheries.
In June, 2015 the United Nations General Assembly approved a resolution calling for the development of an international legally-binding instrument under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea on the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction
Marine protected areas (MPAs) that effectively protect critical habitats, species and ecological functions are an essential tool for recovering, protecting and enhancing biodiversity, productivity and resilience, and for securing these benefits for current and future generations.
United National Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre. 2008. National and Regional Networks of Marine Protected Areas: A Review of Progress. Cambridge, U.K.
Prior to the Aichi targets being developed, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) required that Party states: ‘establish, by 2012, comprehensive, effectively managed, and ecologically representative national and regional systems of protected areas’, and that there should be ‘effective conservation of at least 10% of each of the world's ecological regions by 2010’
Toropova, C., Meliane, I., Laffoley, D., Matthews, E. and Spalding, M. (eds.) 2010. Ocean Protection: Present Status and Future Possibilities. Brest, France: Agence des aires marines protégées, Gland, Switzerland, Washington, DC and New York, USA: IUCN WCPA, Cambridge, UK : UNEP-WCMC, Arlington, USA: TNC, Tokyo, Japan: UNU, New York, USA: WCS.
This report provides some background to the benefits and challenges of marine protected area (MPA) strategies before presenting a summary of global progress towards the 10% challenge set by countries party to the CBD in 2006. The results, which came from data held in the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) showed that 1.17% of the global ocean was ‘protected’ in 2010
Different perspectives to best manage the Pacific Ocean in the interests of all who live there.
Hilborn, R. (2016). Marine biodiversity needs more than protection. Nature, 535(7611), 224-226. http://www.nature.com/news/policy-marine-biodiversity-needs-more-than-protection-1.20229
Charles et al. (2016). Fishing livelihoods as key to marine protected areas: insights from the World Parks Congress. Aquatic Conservation. 26, S2. 165-184 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/aqc.2648/full
Priority Sites for Conservation in the Cook Islands: Key Biodiversity Areas and Important Bird Areas
In 2010, with the assistance of Conservation International and the Critical Ecosystems Partnership Fund, Birdlife International in partnership with the Cook Islands environmental NGO Te Ipukarea Society commenced a project to identify and delineate KBAs and IBAs in the Cook Islands. A Project Steering Committee was established which together with international biodiversity experts from Birdlife International and Conservation International, forms an expert network. The first task was to identify species in the Cook Islands listed on the IUCN Red List as critically endangered, endangered or vulnerable. Endemic species listed in the Cook Islands National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP, 2002) were added to this list because they meet the restricted range criterion.
Coad, L. Leverington, F., Burgess, N., Cuadros, I., Geldmann, J., Marthews, T., Mee, J., Nolte, C., Stoll-Kleemann, S., Vansteelant, N., Zamora, C., Zimsky, M., Hockings, M. 2013. Progress Towards the CBD Protected Area Management Effectiveness Targets. Parks 2013 Vol 19.1
The authors used data from the IUCN Protected Areas Management Effectiveness database (PAME) combined with the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) to assess current progress towards the Convention on Biological Diversity’s (CBD) 2010 and 2015 targets for PAME, which call for at least 30 percent and 60 percent of the total area of protected areas to have been assessed in terms of management effectiveness, respectively.
We think of national parks and protected areas as permanent fixtures on the landscape, but recent research points to the widespread (but largely overlooked) protected area downgrading, downsizing, and degazettement (PADDD). In response, PADDDtracker.org is documenting the patterns, trends, causes, and consequences of PADDD.
Protected Area Short Courses in Australia, Asia and the Pacific: training issues, needs and recommendations
This report is the outcome of a review commissioned by the Protected Areas Learning and Research Collaboration (PALRC) in 2018, with the following aims: • Review the range of current models for short courses that meet protected area agency, Indigenous Protected Area (IPA) and non-government organisation land managers’ needs • Assess the potential for PALRC partners to adapt and/or develop new short courses that meet these needs
Runge, C. A., J. E. M. Watson, S. H. M. Butchart, J. O. Hanson, H. P. Possingham, and R. A. Fuller. 2015 . Protected Areas and the Global Conservation of Migratory Birds. Science 350: 1255-1258.
Just 9% of 1451 migratory birds are adequately covered by protected areas across all stages of their annual cycle, in comparison with 45% of nonmigratory birds. Read the full paper published in Science.
Bastian Bertzky, B., Corrigan, C., Kemsey, J., Kenney, S., Ravilious, C., Besançon, C. and Burgess, N. 2012. Protected Planet Report 2012 Tracking Progress Towards Global Targets for Protected Areas. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK.
This new initiative tracks global progress towards Target 11 of the CBD Aichi Biodiversity Target which calls for at least 17% of the world’s terrestrial areas and 10% of marine areas to be equitably managed and conserved by 2020.
It reports that 12.7% of the world’s terrestrial and inland water and 1.6% of the global ocean area, 4% of all marine area under national jurisdiction and 7.2% of all coastal waters were protected by 2010.
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