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Protected Area targets have been set globally, regionally, and sometimes at a country level. The global targets for all countries that are signatories to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and its Aichi Biodiversity Targets are that

at least 17 per cent of terrestrial and inland water, and 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services, are conserved through effectively and equitably managed, ecologically representative and well connected systems of protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures, and integrated into the wider landscapes and seascapes by 2020.

Regionally, the Micronesia Challenge aims to effectively conserve at least 30% of near-shore marine resources and 20% of terrestrial resources across Micronesia by 2020. An example of a country-based target is Fiji that aims to have 30% of reefs protected by 2015 and 30% of waters managed as a marine protected area network by 2020.

Below are various efforts that have been carried out to assess progress (global and regional) towards Aichi protected area targets. The paper by Govan (2009) is the most comprehensive assessment of marine protected areas (MPAs), including all LMAs in the Pacific Islands. Govan’s data has now been incorporated into the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA).  Several of the papers below attempt to assess progress towards targets which relate to factors such as management effectiveness, biodiversity coverage, governance and finance etc. 

'The Future is Now: Science for Sustainable Development' - Global Sustainable Development Report 2019

Despite considerable efforts these past four years, we are not on track to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030. We must dramatically step up the pace of implementation as we enter a decisive decade for people and the planet.

A Better World (Vol.6)

With the establishment of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in 2015, the Human Development Forum launched a series of publications entitled A Better World, each volume dedicated to one of the 17 SDGs.

A Contrast of Criteria for Special Places Important for Biodiversity Outcomes

This paper contrasts seven spatial biodiversity conservation area designations by six different bodies: Other Effective Area-Based Conservation Measures (OECMs), and the Ecologically and Biologically Significant Areas (EBSAs) of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD); the Vulnerable Marine

A Global Standard for the Identification of Key Biodiversity Areas

The KBA Standard is formally taken to include definitions, the criteria and thresholds, and delineation procedures.

A role for UNEP’s Regional Seas Programme under the post-2020 global biodiversity framework

A case is put forward to make best use of UNEP’s Regional Seas Programme (RSP) for the Convention on Biological Diversity’s (CBD) post-2020 global biodiversity framework (GBF).

A spatial overview of the global importance of Indigenous lands for conservation

Understanding the scale, location and nature conservation values of the lands over which Indigenous Peoples exercise traditional rights is central to implementation of several global conservation and climate agreements.

About the Pacific Islands Protected Area Portal (PIPAP)

The PIPAP Vision

To provide a doorway through which Pacific Islands protected area practitioners can share expertise and benefit from opportunities

 

Addressing the implementation challenge of the global biodiversity framework

A Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF) is under discussion for the period 2021–2030, which will replace the ‘‘Aichi Targets’’ adopted by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in 2010.

Advancing Social Equity in and Through Marine Conservation

Substantial efforts and investments are being made to increase the scale and improve the effectiveness of marine conservation globally.

Advancing Sustainable Development and Protected Area Management with Social Media‐Based Tourism Data

Sustainable tourism involves increasingly attracting visitors while preserving the natural capital of a destination for future generations.

Aichi Biodiversity Targets - Pacific Regional Workshop, July 2016

Aichi Biodiversity Targets - Pacific Regional Workshop, Fiji, July 11-13, 2016

An Introduction to the MPA guide

The Marine Protected Area (MPA) Guide refines existing language and captures a shared vision to describe MPAs and the conservation outcomes they provide. The Guide is the work of many hundreds of stakeholders from around the world.

An inventory of biodiversity data sources for conservation monitoring

Many conservation managers, policy makers, businesses and local communities cannot access the biodiversity data they need for informed decision-making on natural resource management.

Area-based conservation in the twenty-first century

Humanity will soon define a new era for nature—one that seeks to transform decades of underwhelming responses to the global biodiversity crisis.

Assessment of management effectiveness for PNG's protected areas 2017

This is the final report prepared by the Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP) for submission to the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Papua New Guinea Conservation and Environment Protection Authority (CEPA) in relation to the 2016–17 assessment of t

Assessment of post -2010 National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans

National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans (NBSAPs) were always seen as a key instrument for national implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity and other biodiversity-related multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs).

Avoiding the Misuse of other Effective Area-based Conservation measures in the wake of the Blue Economy

Other effective area-based conservation measures (OECMs) represent unique opportunities to help achieve the 2030 biodiversity conservation agenda. However, potential misuse by governments and economic sectors could compromise the outcome of these conservation efforts.

Best Practice in Delivering the 30x30 Target

This guidance document identifies the best options for successful delivery of draft Target 3 of the Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF) from the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). There is good evidence that this will radically increase the success of biodiversity conservation.

Beyond the boundaries: How regulation-centered marine protected area information improves ocean protection assessments

Comprehensive, spatially explicit data that include regulatory information are essential for evaluating the level of protection that marine protected areas (MPAs) and other marine managed areas (MMAs) provide to marine life, and to inform progress towards ocean protection targets.

Biodiversity and Protected Areas

Protected areas are key to biodiversity conservation. While the value of protected areas is generally undisputed, challenges remain.

Biodiversity Beyond National Jurisdiction (BBNJ)

Biodiversity Beyond National Jurisdiction (BBNJ)

Biodiversity needs every tool in the box: use OECMs

Global support is growing for the 30 × 30 movement — a goal to conserve 30% of the planet by 2030. In May, the G7 group of wealthy nations endorsed the commitment to this target that had been made by more than 50 countries in January.

Biophysically special, unique marine areas of Fiji.

Fiji is committed to, and is embarking upon, a process to significantly increase the number and coverage of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) within the country.

Biophysically special, unique marine areas of Tonga.

In 2015, the Tongan Cabinet embarked upon a National Marine Spatial Planning process, establishing a marine spatial planning technical working group comprising seven Ministries (the “Ocean 7”). One of their tasks was to identify Tonga’s special, unique marine areas.

Capacity Development for Protected and Other Conserved Areas in the Pacific Islands Region

This document is an important tool for promoting action. It highlights the importance of culturally‐responsive capacity development, with Pacific Islanders defining the most appropriate approaches to be used.

Characteristics of effective marine protected areas in Hawaiʻi

Ancient Hawaiians developed sophisticated natural resource management systems that included various forms of spatial management.

Climate benefits from establishing marine protected areas targeted at blue carbon solutions

Marine protected areas (MPAs) are recognized as highly effective tools for marine conservation. They may also play an important role in mitigating climate change.

Community-Based Management

Community Based Management resources

Compendium of guidance for capturing, managing and using biodiversity-related data and information

This compendium of guidance provides details of information sources for capturing, managing, using, and sharing data, all in the context of biodiversity and ecosystem services.

Compendium of guidance on achieving synergies among biodiversity-related conventions at the national level

The purpose of the document is to help increase access to existing guidance material on synergies among biodiversity-related conventions and to provide a basis for identifying gaps in the available guidance.

Conservation of birds in fragmented landscapes requires protected areas

For successful conservation of biodiversity, it is vital to know whether protected areas in increasingly fragmented landscapes effectively safeguard species. However, how large habitat fragments must be, and what level of protection is required to sustain species, remains poorly known.

CONSERVING AT LEAST 30% OF THE PLANET BY 2030 – What should count?

This brief seeks to bring clarity to the question of what could count toward the 30% global minimum target. within the context of recognized area-based conservation measures and their ability to deliver positive long-term conservation outcomes.

Considering Indigenous Peoples and local communities in governance of the global ocean commons

The United Nations are currently negotiating a new international legally-binding instrument to govern the global ocean commons, a vast area beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ) owned by everyone but not cared for by any single entity.

Contemporary Ra¯hui: placing Indigenous, conservation, and sustainability sciences in community-led conservation

Resource sustainability requires recognising and developing pathways to integrate local and Indigenous knowledges alongside conservation and sustainability sciences within management practices and governance.

Contribution of Marine Conservation Agreements to Biodiversity Protection, Fisheries Management and Sustainable Financing in Fiji

The Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) has just finished a report on the "Contribution of Marine Conservation Agreements to Biodiversity Protection, Fisheries Management and Sustainable Financing in Fiji."The report documents the degree and scale to which Marine Conservation Agreements (MCAs) ar

Cost-effective priorities for the expansion of global terrestrial protected areas: Setting post-2020 global and national targets

Biodiversity loss is a social and ecological emergency, and calls have been made for the global expansion of protected areas (PAs) to tackle this crisis. It is unclear, however, where best to locate new PAs to protect biodiversity cost-effectively.

COVID-19 and protected areas: Impacts, conflicts, and possible management solutions

During the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, management authorities of numerous Protected Areas (PAs) had to discourage visitors from accessing them in order to reduce the virus transmission rate and protect local communities.

Custodians of the globe’s blue carbon assets

Over the last decades scientists have discovered that seagrass meadows, tidal marshes, and mangroves – “blue carbon” ecosystems – are among the most intensive carbon sinks in the biosphere.

Data-driven approach for highlighting priority areas for protection in marine areas beyond national jurisdiction

One of the aims of the United Nations (UN) negotiations on the conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ) is to develop a legal process for the establishment of area-based management tools, including marine protected areas, in ABNJ.

Defining ‘science-based targets’

Setting targets for addressing major planetary concerns is an essential prerequisite for concerted global action (both inside and outside multilateral environmental agreements) and is necessarily a societal and political process, requiring negotiation and convergence among oftenconflicting intere

Designing protected area networks that translate international conservation commitments into national action

 Here we undertake a cost-effective approach to protected area planning in Guyana that accounts for in-country conditions.

Ecologically or Biologically Significant Marine Areas (EBSAs) and Commercial Activities

Ecologically or Biologically Significant Marine Areas (EBSAs) and Commercial Activities