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Wagner, D. (ed).  2013.  Big Ocean: A Shared Research Agenda for Large-Scale Marine Protected Area.  Prepared by Big Ocean planning team in collaboration with the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument & UNESCO World Heritage Site (PMNM), NOAA Office of National Marine Sanctuaries.

 Based on workshop discussions, three main research themes were identified as being most relevant to large-scale MPAs, and included (1) biological and ecological characterization, (2) connectivity and (3) monitoring of temporal trends.