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Communicating science and management within the local culture and finding innovative ways to encourage people to alter their behaviour are possibly the most important aspects of protected area creation and implementation and management. However, these are also areas that are under-resourced and often overlooked. 

The range of resources in this section has been selected to assist practitioners in overcoming these challenges. Some of the links provide direct access to tools and resources that have already been developed for working with communities. These resources are divided into the following two sub-sections:
 

Can Local Ecological Knowledge Contribute to Wildlife Management? Case Studies of Migratory Birds.

Gilchrist, G., M. Mallory and F. Merkel 2005. Can Local Ecological Knowledge Contribute to Wildlife Management? Case Studies of Migratory Birds.  Ecology and Society 10 (1): 20.

Co-management of Protected Areas without Local Knowledge and Participation: A Case Study from Lawachara National Park.

Aziz, M.A. 2008. Co-management of Protected Areas without Local Knowledge and Participation: A Case Study from Lawachara National Park. Jahangirnagar University, Bangladesh.

Communicating Protected Areas

Hamú, D., Auchincloss, E., Goldstein, W. (eds.). 2004. Communicating Protected Areas. Commission on Education and Communication, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge.

Communicating with the Public About Marine Protected Areas.

Helms, G. and Schaadt, M. 2012.  Communicating with the Public About Marine Protected Areas. Resource Media.

Educational Posters on Coastal Resource Management

Foundation of the Peoples’ of the South Pacific International (FSPI). Educational Posters on Coastal Resource Management. Awareness Raising Materials.

Educational Posters on Marine Species and Other Topics

Educational Posters on Marine Species and Other Topics.  Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC). Educational materials.

Fishers’ Knowledge in Fisheries Science and Management

Haggan, N., Neis, B. Baird, I. G.  2007. Fishers’ Knowledge in Fisheries Science and Management.  UNESCO.

Fostering Sustainable Behavior – An Introduction to Community-Based Social Marketing

McKenzie-Mohr, D., and Smith, W. 2011.  Fostering Sustainable Behavior – An Introduction to Community-Based Social Marketing. New Society Publishers.

Guidelines for the Rapid Assessment of Cultural Ecosystem Services (GRACE)

Infield, M., Morse-Jones, S., and Anthem, H. (2015). Guidelines for the Rapid Assessment of Cultural Ecosystem Services (GRACE): Version 1. A report by Fauna & Flora International.

Impact of Protected Areas on Poverty and Human Well-Being

Daniel Brockington, David Wilkie. Protected areas and poverty.Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 2015; 370 (1681): 20140271 DOI: 

Inspiring Support and Commitment for Protected Areas through Communication, Education and Public Awareness Programs: A Quick Guide for Protected Area Practitioners.

Ervin, J., P. Butler, L. Wilkinson, M. Piper and S. Watkins. 2010. Inspiring Support and Commitment for Protected Areas through Communication, Education and Public Awareness Programs: A Quick Guide for Protected Area Practitioners. Quick Guide Series, J.

RARE Pride Handbook: A Guide for Inspiring Conservation in Your Community.

Price, S. and Mayorga, M. 2007. RARE Pride Handbook: A Guide for Inspiring Conservation in Your Community. RARE,  Arlington, Virginia.

Rediscovery of Traditional Ecological Knowledge as Adaptive Management

Berkes, F. Colding, J. Folke, C. 2000.  Rediscovery of Traditional Ecological Knowledge as Adaptive Management. Ecological Applications, Vol 10, No. 5.

REEF GAME - Tool Demonstration Guide: A Game to Explore Livelihoods and Marine Conservation in Fishing Communities.

Cleland, D., Doctor, M.V.A., and Perez, P. 2010.  REEF GAME - Tool Demonstration Guide: A Game to Explore Livelihoods and Marine Conservation in Fishing Communities. In: Marine Environment and Resources Foundation, Inc.

Selling Climate Change? The Limitations of Social Marketing as a Strategy for Climate Change Public Engagement

Corner, A., Randall, A. 2011.  Selling Climate Change? The Limitations of Social Marketing as a Strategy for Climate Change Public Engagement. Global Environmental Change 21, 1005–1014.

Strengthening Conservation Cultures: Local Communities and Biodiversity Conservation

Singh, S. Sankaran, V. Mander, H. Worah, S. 2000. Strengthening Conservation Cultures: Local Communities and Biodiversity Conservation. Man and the Biosphere Programme, UNESCO, Paris, France.

Tools, Guidebooks and Posters from the Locally Managed Marine Areas Network (LMMA)

Various authors. Tools, Guidebooks and Posters from the Locally Managed Marine Areas Network (LMMA). Resource section of the LMMA Network.

Traditional Knowledge, Use, and Management of Living Marine Resources in American Samoa: Documenting Changes over Time through Interviews with Elder Fishers

Levine, A. and Sauafea-Leau, F. 2013. Traditional Knowledge, Use, and Management of Living Marine Resources in American Samoa:  Documenting Changes over Time through Interviews with Elder Fishers. Pacific Science, vol. 67, no.

Use and Misuse of Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Management Practices: Pacific Island Examples.

Johannes, R. E. 2003. Use and Misuse of Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Management Practices: Pacific Island Examples. Pages 111–126 in D. Dallmeyer, ed. Values at sea: Ethics for the marine environment.

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