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There are various conservation processes which have been tried and tested in the Pacific Islands.  These include, the Conservation Action Planning (CAP) method, Open Standards for Conservation and other participatory methods such as Participatory Learning and Action (PLA) etc.  This section is intended to provide guidance on the use of these tools, along with examples of how and where they have worked in the region.

A Contrast of Criteria for Special Places Important for Biodiversity Outcomes

This paper contrasts seven spatial biodiversity conservation area designations by six different bodies: Other Effective Area-Based Conservation Measures (OECMs), and the Ecologically and Biologically Significant Areas (EBSAs) of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD); the Vulnerable Marine

A Global Standard for the Identification of Key Biodiversity Areas

The KBA Standard is formally taken to include definitions, the criteria and thresholds, and delineation procedures.

A herpetofauna with dramatic endemism signals an overlooked biodiversity hotspot

The Milne Bay Region of southeasternmost Papua New Guinea comprises a small portion of mainland New Guinea and several offshore islands, totaling 15,000 km2 in land area.

A Toolkit to Support Conservation by Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities: Building Capacity and Sharing Knowledge for Indigenous Peoples.

Corrigan, C. and Hay-Edie, T. 2013.  A Toolkit to Support Conservation by Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities: Building Capacity and Sharing Knowledge for Indigenous Peoples. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK.

An Introduction to the MPA guide

The Marine Protected Area (MPA) Guide refines existing language and captures a shared vision to describe MPAs and the conservation outcomes they provide. The Guide is the work of many hundreds of stakeholders from around the world.

Avoiding the Misuse of other Effective Area-based Conservation measures in the wake of the Blue Economy

Other effective area-based conservation measures (OECMs) represent unique opportunities to help achieve the 2030 biodiversity conservation agenda. However, potential misuse by governments and economic sectors could compromise the outcome of these conservation efforts.

Best Practices Guide for Crown of Thorns Clean-Ups

Fraser, N., B. Crawford, and J. Kusen. 2000. Best Practices Guide for Crown of Thorns Clean-Ups. Proyek Pesisir Special Publication. Coastal Resources Center, Coastal Management Report #2225.

Biocultural Community Protocols: A Toolkit for Community Facilitators (Natural Justice)

Shrumm, H., Jonas J. (ed). 2012. Biocultural Community Protocols: A Toolkit for Community Facilitators (Natural Justice). Natural Justice: Cape Town.

Biodiversity and Protected Areas

Protected areas are key to biodiversity conservation. While the value of protected areas is generally undisputed, challenges remain.


This report outlines the process undertaken to define and describe the special, unique marine areas of Fiji.

Conservation Action Planning (CAP) Handbook Developing Strategies, Taking Action and Measuring Success at Any Scale.

The Nature Conservancy. 2007.  Conservation Action Planning (CAP) Handbook Developing Strategies, Taking Action and Measuring Success at Any Scale. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA.

Conservation Action Planning: Developing Strategies, Taking Action, and Measuring Success at Any Scale. Overview of Basic Practices

The Nature Conservancy. 2007. Conservation Action Planning: Developing Strategies, Taking Action, and Measuring Success at Any Scale. Overview of Basic Practices. Arlington, VA.

Conservation in the maelstrom of Covid-19 – a call to action to solve the challenges, exploit opportunities and prepare for the next pandemic

As we sit in the vortex of the Covid-19 outbreak, individual energies are focused on staying safe and juggling the personal, social and financial impacts of the pandemic and political responses to it.

Conservation of birds in fragmented landscapes requires protected areas

For successful conservation of biodiversity, it is vital to know whether protected areas in increasingly fragmented landscapes effectively safeguard species. However, how large habitat fragments must be, and what level of protection is required to sustain species, remains poorly known.

CONSERVING AT LEAST 30% OF THE PLANET BY 2030 – What should count?

This brief seeks to bring clarity to the question of what could count toward the 30% global minimum target. within the context of recognized area-based conservation measures and their ability to deliver positive long-term conservation outcomes.

Cost-effective priorities for the expansion of global terrestrial protected areas: Setting post-2020 global and national targets

Biodiversity loss is a social and ecological emergency, and calls have been made for the global expansion of protected areas (PAs) to tackle this crisis. It is unclear, however, where best to locate new PAs to protect biodiversity cost-effectively.

Designing Marine Spatial Planning Legislation for Implementation: A Guide for Legal Drafters May 2020

The Guide contains information about essential components and sub-components of marine spatial planning legislation, describing each and highlighting its role and significance.

Developing a framework for the efficient design and management of large scale marine protected areas

This study identifies the importance of: acquiring robust baseline data, being fully protected (no-take), using ecosystembased management, community inclusion, and of adopting an ecologically connected network approach.

Enhanced regional connectivity between western North American national parks will increase persistence of mammal species diversity

Many protected areas worldwide increasingly resemble habitat isolates embedded in human-modifed landscapes. However, establishing linkages among protected areas could signifcantly reduce speciesloss rates.

Evaluating the effectiveness of a large multi-use MPA in protecting Key Biodiversity Areas for marine predators

Marine protected areas can serve to regulate harvesting and conserve biodiversity. Within large multi-use MPAs, it is often unclear to what degree critical sites of biodiversity are afforded protection against commercial activities.

Framework for Nature Conservation and Protected Areas in the Pacific Islands Region, 2014-2020

The 9th Pacific Islands Conference on Nature Conservation and Protected Areas held in Suva, Fiji, December 2013 produced and adopted a new Framework for Nature Conservation and Protected Areas in the Pacific Islands Region 2014-2020.

Good Practices in Participatory Mapping. A Review Prepared for the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)

Corbett, J.  2009. Good Practices in Participatory Mapping.  A Review Prepared for the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD).  International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD).  Rome, Italy.

Guidelines for conserving connectivity through ecological networks and corridors

Ecological connectivity is the unimpeded movement of species and the flow of natural processes that sustain life on Earth.

Guidelines For Undertaking Rapid Biodiversity Assessments In Terrestrial And Marine Environments In The Pacific

The Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP) presents these guidelines for undertaking rapid biodiversity assessments in its Pacific island member countries and territories: Micronesia, Melanesia, and Polynesia. These assessments are referred to as BIORAPs.

How to protect areas on your land and sea under the Protected Areas Act 2010 (Solomon Islands)

This is a simple guide on the Solomon Islands Protected Areas Act 2010 and how to establish terrestrial and marine protect areas through its provisions.

Improving biodiversity protection through artificial intelligence

Over a million species face extinction, highlighting the urgent need for conservation policies that maximize the protection of biodiversity to sustain its manifold contributions to people’s lives.

In Pursuit of Knowledge: Addressing Barriers to Effective Conservation Evaluation

Evaluation, the process of assessing the effectiveness of programs and activities, has gained increasing attention in the conservation sector as programs seek to account for investments, measure their impacts, and adapt interventions to improve future outcomes.

IUCN WCPA Technical Note - Equity in conservation – what, why and how?

Achieving the target to conserve 30% of land and sea requires strong emphasis on equity.

IUCN World Heritage Outlook 3

IUCN World Heritage Outlook 3 builds on three cycles of Conservation Outlook Assessments undertaken since 2014. It presents the main results for 2020, but also some longer-term trends based on a comparison of three data sets now available.

Lessons Learned and Best Practices in the Management of Coral Reefs

WorldFish Center. 2008.  Lessons Learned and Best Practices in the Management of Coral Reefs. Lessons Learned 1804, Penang, Malaysia

Linking Human Destruction of Nature to COVID‑19 Increases Support for Wildlife Conservation Policies

This paper investigates if narratives varying the cause of the COVID-19 pandemic affects pro-wildlife conservation outcomes.

Managing the middle: A shift in conservation priorities based on the global human modification gradient

An increasing number of international initiatives aim to reconcile development with conservation. Crucial to successful implementation of these initiatives is a comprehensive understanding of the current ecological condition of landscapes and their spatial distributions.

Marine Conservation Agreements - Guidance for the Tourism Industry in Fiji

This summary provides resorts, tourism operators, and policy makers with an introduction to marine conservation agreements (MCA) and outlines a process for planning and implementing an MCA in Fiji.

Marshall Islands' National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan

The purpose of this Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (BSAP) is to Assist the Marshall Islands to Plan for the Conservation of its biodiversity and for in the sustainable use of its biological resources.

Minimizing cross-realm threats from land-use change: A national-scale conservation framework connecting land, freshwater and marine systems

There is a growing recognition that conservation strategies should be designed accounting for cross-realm connections, such as freshwater connections to land and sea, to ensure effectiveness of marine spatial protection and minimize perverse outcomes of changing land-use.

Monitoring for Management of Protected Areas- An Overview’ and ‘Monitoring Wildlife Populations for Management

Rao, M., Stokes, e. and Johnson, A. 2009. Monitoring for Management of Protected Areas- An Overview’ and ‘Monitoring Wildlife Populations for Management. Training Module 6 for the Network of Conservation Educators and Practitioners.

Motivations to Support Marine Conservation Projects in North Tarawa, Kiribati

Local communities’ support for resource conservation projects are essential for their success. Nevertheless, in the Pacific Island countries, many community-based conservation (CBC) projects remain ineffective due to the lack of community members’ engagement.

New Caledonia - Global Reef Expedition Final Report

The world has recognized the reefs of New Caledonia as hosting some of the most beautiful and well-preserved tropical marine habitats, globally. New Caledonia is isolated in the southwest Pacific Ocean, about 1,300 km east of Australia.

Oceanian Sovereignty: rethinking conservation in a sea of islands

In an age of dramatic environmental and ecological challenges, the dynamics of sovereignty associated with the conservation of natural resources in Oceania are in flux.

Pacific Invasives Initiative, Resource Kit for Invasive Plant Management

Pacific Invasives Initiative. 2013.  Pacific Invasives Initiative, Resource Kit for Invasive Plant Management. Auckland, New Zealand.

Pacific Islands Framework for Nature Conservation and Protected Areas 2021- 2025

This Pacific Islands Framework for Nature Conservation and Protected Areas2021-2025 is the principal regional strategy document for environmental conservation in the Pacific.

Pacific Islands Framework for Nature Conservation and Protected Areas 2021-2025

This new Pacific Islands framework for Nature Conservation and Protected Areas 2021-2025 was endorsed during the conference and subsequently at the 30th SPREP Meeting by 26 members countries and territories in 2021.

Participatory Learning and Action (PLA): Resource Guide for Practitioners. American Samoa Context.

Sauafea-Leau, F. 2010. Participatory Learning and Action (PLA): Resource Guide for Practitioners.  American Samoa Context.. NOAA PIRO.  American Samoa.

Predicting impact to assess the efficacy of community-based marine reserve design

During the planning phase the efficacy of different strategies to manage marine resources should ultimately be assessed by their potential impact, or ability to make a difference to ecological and social outcomes.

Predicting the optimal amount of time to spend learning before designating protected habitat for threatened species

Deciding when to protect threatened species habitat when complete knowledge about the habitat extent is uncertain is a common problem in conservation. More accurate habitat mapping improves conservation outcomes once that habitat is protected.

Priority Sites for Conservation in Kiribati: Key Biodiversity Areas

This KBA report outlines key recommendations for the Government of Kiribati and its people for protecting its unique biodiversity and supporting sustainable livelihoods. A total of twenty-two island KBAs were identified and suggested for immediate management.

Priority Sites for Conservation in the Cook Islands: Key Biodiversity Areas and Important Bird Areas

In 2010, with the assistance of Conservation International and the Critical Ecosystems Partnership Fund, Birdlife International in partnership with the Cook Islands environmental NGO Te Ipukarea Society commenced a project to identify and delineate KBAs and IBAs in the Cook Islands.

Protected Area Network Expansion and Management: Economics to improve conservation outcomes

This paper identifies the Dasgupta Review’s key points about the role of protected areas (PAs) in conserving nature.