Skip to main content
There are various conservation processes which have been tried and tested in the Pacific Islands.  These include, the Conservation Action Planning (CAP) method, Open Standards for Conservation and other participatory methods such as Participatory Learning and Action (PLA) etc.  This section is intended to provide guidance on the use of these tools, along with examples of how and where they have worked in the region.

A call for improving the Key Biodiversity Areas framework

Eight percent of all land surface has been designated as “Key Biodiversity Areas” (KBAs). Since these areas were established based on two percent of all terrestrial species estimated to exist, we ask what would happen if we used all species on Earth to identify additional KBAs.

A Comparative Analysis of Protected Area Management Effectiveness (PAME) Evaluation Tools for the Pacific Islands Region

This report was commissioned by the Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP) to raise awareness and understanding of the tools available to evaluate Protected Area Management Effectiveness (PAME); to provide case studies from the region on PAME assessment; and to help inf

A Contrast of Criteria for Special Places Important for Biodiversity Outcomes

This paper contrasts seven spatial biodiversity conservation area designations by six different bodies: Other Effective Area-Based Conservation Measures (OECMs), and the Ecologically and Biologically Significant Areas (EBSAs) of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD); the Vulnerable Marine

A global assessment of the prevalence of current and potential future infrastructure in Key Biodiversity Areas

Infrastructure development is a major threat to biodiversity, leading to habitat loss and fragmentation, increased accessibility and pollution.

A Global Standard for the Identification of Key Biodiversity Areas

The KBA Standard is formally taken to include definitions, the criteria and thresholds, and delineation procedures.

A handbook for identifying, evaluating and reporting other effective area-based conservation measures in marine fisheries

This handbook for identifying, evaluating and reporting other effective area-based conservation measures in marine fisheries builds on a wealth of FAO fisheries guidance, including the FAO Technical Guidelines on Fisheries Management (FAO, 1997) and the various FAO Technical Guidelines for Respon

A herpetofauna with dramatic endemism signals an overlooked biodiversity hotspot

The Milne Bay Region of southeasternmost Papua New Guinea comprises a small portion of mainland New Guinea and several offshore islands, totaling 15,000 km2 in land area.

A resilient and connected network of sites to sustain biodiversity under a changing climate

Motivated by declines in biodiversity exacerbated by climate change, we identified a network of conservation sites designed to provide resilient habitat for species, while supporting dynamic shifts in ranges and changes in ecosystem composition.

A Toolkit to Support Conservation by Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities: Building Capacity and Sharing Knowledge for Indigenous Peoples.

Corrigan, C. and Hay-Edie, T. 2013.  A Toolkit to Support Conservation by Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities: Building Capacity and Sharing Knowledge for Indigenous Peoples. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK.

An Introduction to the MPA guide

The Marine Protected Area (MPA) Guide refines existing language and captures a shared vision to describe MPAs and the conservation outcomes they provide. The Guide is the work of many hundreds of stakeholders from around the world.

Avoiding the Misuse of other Effective Area-based Conservation measures in the wake of the Blue Economy

Other effective area-based conservation measures (OECMs) represent unique opportunities to help achieve the 2030 biodiversity conservation agenda. However, potential misuse by governments and economic sectors could compromise the outcome of these conservation efforts.

Best Practices Guide for Crown of Thorns Clean-Ups

Fraser, N., B. Crawford, and J. Kusen. 2000. Best Practices Guide for Crown of Thorns Clean-Ups. Proyek Pesisir Special Publication. Coastal Resources Center, Coastal Management Report #2225.

Biocultural Community Protocols: A Toolkit for Community Facilitators (Natural Justice)

Shrumm, H., Jonas J. (ed). 2012. Biocultural Community Protocols: A Toolkit for Community Facilitators (Natural Justice). Natural Justice: Cape Town.

Biodiversity and Protected Areas

Protected areas are key to biodiversity conservation. While the value of protected areas is generally undisputed, challenges remain.


This report outlines the process undertaken to define and describe the special, unique marine areas of Fiji.

Conservation Action Planning (CAP) Handbook Developing Strategies, Taking Action and Measuring Success at Any Scale.

The Nature Conservancy. 2007.  Conservation Action Planning (CAP) Handbook Developing Strategies, Taking Action and Measuring Success at Any Scale. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA.

Conservation Action Planning: Developing Strategies, Taking Action, and Measuring Success at Any Scale. Overview of Basic Practices

The Nature Conservancy. 2007. Conservation Action Planning: Developing Strategies, Taking Action, and Measuring Success at Any Scale. Overview of Basic Practices. Arlington, VA.

Conservation in the maelstrom of Covid-19 – a call to action to solve the challenges, exploit opportunities and prepare for the next pandemic

As we sit in the vortex of the Covid-19 outbreak, individual energies are focused on staying safe and juggling the personal, social and financial impacts of the pandemic and political responses to it.

Conservation of birds in fragmented landscapes requires protected areas

For successful conservation of biodiversity, it is vital to know whether protected areas in increasingly fragmented landscapes effectively safeguard species. However, how large habitat fragments must be, and what level of protection is required to sustain species, remains poorly known.

CONSERVING AT LEAST 30% OF THE PLANET BY 2030 – What should count?

This brief seeks to bring clarity to the question of what could count toward the 30% global minimum target. within the context of recognized area-based conservation measures and their ability to deliver positive long-term conservation outcomes.

Cost-effective priorities for the expansion of global terrestrial protected areas: Setting post-2020 global and national targets

Biodiversity loss is a social and ecological emergency, and calls have been made for the global expansion of protected areas (PAs) to tackle this crisis. It is unclear, however, where best to locate new PAs to protect biodiversity cost-effectively.

Designing Marine Spatial Planning Legislation for Implementation: A Guide for Legal Drafters May 2020

The Guide contains information about essential components and sub-components of marine spatial planning legislation, describing each and highlighting its role and significance.

Developing a framework for the efficient design and management of large scale marine protected areas

This study identifies the importance of: acquiring robust baseline data, being fully protected (no-take), using ecosystembased management, community inclusion, and of adopting an ecologically connected network approach.

Diverse values of nature for sustainability

Twenty-five years since foundational publications on valuing ecosystem services for human well-being addressing the global biodiversity crisis still implies confronting barriers to incorporating nature’s diverse values into decision-making.

Enhanced regional connectivity between western North American national parks will increase persistence of mammal species diversity

Many protected areas worldwide increasingly resemble habitat isolates embedded in human-modifed landscapes. However, establishing linkages among protected areas could signifcantly reduce speciesloss rates.

Evaluating the effectiveness of a large multi-use MPA in protecting Key Biodiversity Areas for marine predators

Marine protected areas can serve to regulate harvesting and conserve biodiversity. Within large multi-use MPAs, it is often unclear to what degree critical sites of biodiversity are afforded protection against commercial activities.

FINAL REPORT - Seabird Survey of Aleipata Offshore Islands, Samoa. 24-26 October 2022

The Aleipata group of offshore islands have been identified as one of eight Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs) in Samoa. They are located at the south-eastern end of Upolu Island at 14o3’447.28”S, 171o25’23.84”W (Nu’utele) and 14o4’22.11”S and 171o24’36.17”W (Nu’ulua) offshore.

Framework for Nature Conservation and Protected Areas in the Pacific Islands Region, 2014-2020

The 9th Pacific Islands Conference on Nature Conservation and Protected Areas held in Suva, Fiji, December 2013 produced and adopted a new Framework for Nature Conservation and Protected Areas in the Pacific Islands Region 2014-2020.

Good Practices in Participatory Mapping. A Review Prepared for the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)

Corbett, J.  2009. Good Practices in Participatory Mapping.  A Review Prepared for the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD).  International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD).  Rome, Italy.

Guidelines for conserving connectivity through ecological networks and corridors

Ecological connectivity is the unimpeded movement of species and the flow of natural processes that sustain life on Earth.

Guidelines For Undertaking Rapid Biodiversity Assessments In Terrestrial And Marine Environments In The Pacific

The Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP) presents these guidelines for undertaking rapid biodiversity assessments in its Pacific island member countries and territories: Micronesia, Melanesia, and Polynesia. These assessments are referred to as BIORAPs.

How to protect areas on your land and sea under the Protected Areas Act 2010 (Solomon Islands)

This is a simple guide on the Solomon Islands Protected Areas Act 2010 and how to establish terrestrial and marine protect areas through its provisions.

Improving biodiversity protection through artificial intelligence

Over a million species face extinction, highlighting the urgent need for conservation policies that maximize the protection of biodiversity to sustain its manifold contributions to people’s lives.

In Pursuit of Knowledge: Addressing Barriers to Effective Conservation Evaluation

Evaluation, the process of assessing the effectiveness of programs and activities, has gained increasing attention in the conservation sector as programs seek to account for investments, measure their impacts, and adapt interventions to improve future outcomes.

IUCN WCPA Technical Note - Equity in conservation – what, why and how?

Achieving the target to conserve 30% of land and sea requires strong emphasis on equity.

IUCN World Heritage Outlook 3

IUCN World Heritage Outlook 3 builds on three cycles of Conservation Outlook Assessments undertaken since 2014. It presents the main results for 2020, but also some longer-term trends based on a comparison of three data sets now available.

Lessons from Palau to end parachute science in international conservation research

Conservation science is having a reckoning with “parachute science”.

Lessons Learned and Best Practices in the Management of Coral Reefs

WorldFish Center. 2008.  Lessons Learned and Best Practices in the Management of Coral Reefs. Lessons Learned 1804, Penang, Malaysia

Linking Human Destruction of Nature to COVID‑19 Increases Support for Wildlife Conservation Policies

This paper investigates if narratives varying the cause of the COVID-19 pandemic affects pro-wildlife conservation outcomes.

Managing the middle: A shift in conservation priorities based on the global human modification gradient

An increasing number of international initiatives aim to reconcile development with conservation. Crucial to successful implementation of these initiatives is a comprehensive understanding of the current ecological condition of landscapes and their spatial distributions.

Marine Conservation Agreements - Guidance for the Tourism Industry in Fiji

This summary provides resorts, tourism operators, and policy makers with an introduction to marine conservation agreements (MCA) and outlines a process for planning and implementing an MCA in Fiji.

Marshall Islands' National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan

The purpose of this Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (BSAP) is to Assist the Marshall Islands to Plan for the Conservation of its biodiversity and for in the sustainable use of its biological resources.

Minimizing cross-realm threats from land-use change: A national-scale conservation framework connecting land, freshwater and marine systems

There is a growing recognition that conservation strategies should be designed accounting for cross-realm connections, such as freshwater connections to land and sea, to ensure effectiveness of marine spatial protection and minimize perverse outcomes of changing land-use.

Monitoring for Management of Protected Areas- An Overview’ and ‘Monitoring Wildlife Populations for Management

Rao, M., Stokes, e. and Johnson, A. 2009. Monitoring for Management of Protected Areas- An Overview’ and ‘Monitoring Wildlife Populations for Management. Training Module 6 for the Network of Conservation Educators and Practitioners.

Motivations to Support Marine Conservation Projects in North Tarawa, Kiribati

Local communities’ support for resource conservation projects are essential for their success. Nevertheless, in the Pacific Island countries, many community-based conservation (CBC) projects remain ineffective due to the lack of community members’ engagement.

National-level evaluation of a community-based marine management initiative

Community-based approaches to conservation and natural resource management are considered essential to meeting global conservation targets.

New Caledonia - Global Reef Expedition Final Report

The world has recognized the reefs of New Caledonia as hosting some of the most beautiful and well-preserved tropical marine habitats, globally. New Caledonia is isolated in the southwest Pacific Ocean, about 1,300 km east of Australia.

Oceanian Sovereignty: rethinking conservation in a sea of islands

In an age of dramatic environmental and ecological challenges, the dynamics of sovereignty associated with the conservation of natural resources in Oceania are in flux.