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The resources outlined below are designed to assist practitioners in the challenging area of governing protected areas.  This subject area is divided into two parts:

Governance and Legislation Guidance

A combination of global guidance documents for governance and Pacific related papers addressing legislation gaps in certain countries and discussing legal frameworks for community-based management etc

Enforcement and Compliance

Useful guidance papers developed by PIMPAC for conservation officers in the Pacific Islands, as well as some more general papers on enforcement in protected areas.  There is also a resource discussing the use of economic incentives for community-based nature conservation.

A Guide to Establishing a Program Compliance and Enforcement Plan

A Guide to Establishing a Program Compliance and Enforcement Plan. Pacific Islands Managed and Protected Areas Community (PIMPAC) document: Conservation Enforcement Training

A Step‐by‐Step Guide for Developing Effective Standard Operating Procedures for Conservation Enforcement Programs

Pacific Islands Managed and Protected Areas Community (PIMPAC) document: Conservation Enforcement Training

Community-Based Incentives for Nature Conservation

Emerton, L. 2001.  Community-Based Incentives for Nature Conservation.  IUCN The World Conservation Union, Eastern Africa Regional Office and Economics Unit.

Considering Indigenous Peoples and local communities in governance of the global ocean commons

The United Nations are currently negotiating a new international legally-binding instrument to govern the global ocean commons, a vast area beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ) owned by everyone but not cared for by any single entity.

Creating Legal Space for Community-based Fisheries and Customary Marine Tenure in the Pacific: Issues and Opportunities.

Kuemlangan, B. 2004. Creating Legal Space for Community-based Fisheries and Customary Marine Tenure in the Pacific: Issues and Opportunities. FishCode Review. No. 7 (En). Rome, FAO.

Ecological connectivity between the areas beyond national jurisdiction and coastal waters: Safeguarding interests of coastal communities in developing countries

The UN General Assembly has made a unanimous decision to start negotiations to establish an international, legally-binding instrument for the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity within Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction (ABNJ).

Enforcement and Coastal Development for Marine Conservation

Corrigan, C. 2007. Enforcement and Coastal Development for Marine Conservation. Innovations in Conservation Series. Parks in Peril Program. Arlington, VA, USA: The Nature Conservancy

Fully Protected Marine Reserves: a Guide.

Roberts, C.M. and Hawkins,  J.P. 2000. Fully Protected Marine Reserves: a Guide. WWF Endangered Seas Campaign, Washington D.C.

Governance Assessment for Protected and Conserved Areas (GAPA) - Methodology manual for GAPA facilitators

This manual provides detailed guidance for assessing the governance quality of protected areas (PAs) and other conserved areas (CAs) and any related conservation and development activities.

Governance of Protected Areas: From Understanding to Action.

Borrini-Feyerabend, G., Dudley, N. Jaeger, T., Lassen, B., Pathak Broome, N., Phillips, A. and Sandwith, T. 2013. Governance of Protected Areas: From Understanding to Action. Best Practice Protected Area Guidelines Series No.

Governance, Equity and the Green List

Good governance is fundamental to effective protected area (PA) design, planning, and management operations, and the degree to which these are equitable in terms of the recognition and engagement of key actors, and the distribution of benefits and costs/burdens.

Governing MPAs – Getting the Balance Right

Jones, P.J.S, Qiu W., and De Santo E.M. 2011. Governing MPAs – Getting the Balance Right. Technical Report, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)

Guide to Writing and Filing Incident Reports and Citations for Conservation Officers

Guide to Writing and Filing Incident Reports and Citations for Conservation Officers. Pacific Islands Managed and Protected Areas Community (PIMPAC) document: Conservation Enforcement Training

Guidelines for Protected Area Legislation

Barbara., L. 2011. Guidelines for Protected Area Legislation. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Guidelines for Protected Area Legislation

Lausche, B. 2011. Guidelines for Protected Area Legislation. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. 

High-seas fish biodiversity is slipping through the governance net

States at the United Nations have begun negotiating a new treaty to strengthen the legal regime for marine biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction.

How MPAs Safeguard the High Seas

The high seas begin 200 nautical miles from coastal shores, beyond the jurisdiction of any country. Their vast expanse and distance from shore pose challenges for exploration and knowledge gathering.

Jaluit Atoll Background Report Environmental Resource Management Plan

The goals of the Jaluit Atoll Environmental Resource Management Plan (ERMP) are to provide all stakeholders with a framework to guide environmental resource management initiatives that will assist the community to maintain healthy marine and terrestrial environments for current and future generat

Legal Mechanisms for the Establishment and Management of Terrestrial Protected Areas in Fiji

Clarke, P. Gillespie, C.T.  2009. Legal Mechanisms for the Establishment and Management of Terrestrial Protected Areas in Fiji.  IUCN. Suva, Fiji.

Marine Protected Areas Policy and Legislation Gap Analysis: Fiji Islands.

Techera, E.J. and Troniak, S. 2009.  Marine Protected Areas Policy and Legislation Gap Analysis: Fiji Islands. IUCN Regional Office for Oceania, Suva, Fiji.

Meanings and more... Policy Brief of the ICCA Consortium, Issue No. 7

In 2018 the Council of the ICCA Consortium decided to develop a lexicon of meaningful, and at times complex, concepts and terms frequently used in its work, policies and relations with its Members and Partners.

Model Law for Protection of Traditional Ecological Knowledge

Model Law for Protection of Traditional Ecological Knowledge.  Unknown Source.  Available Through GRAIN Website.

Motivations to Support Marine Conservation Projects in North Tarawa, Kiribati

Local communities’ support for resource conservation projects are essential for their success. Nevertheless, in the Pacific Island countries, many community-based conservation (CBC) projects remain ineffective due to the lack of community members’ engagement.

Promoting sustainable and inclusive oceans management in Pacific islands through women and science

The question of how to efficiently and effectively manage ocean resources in a sustainable way has reached the forefront of discussion at an international level, but women's contributions to this process have been underestimated or unrecognized.

Rights of Nature: Perspectives for Global Ocean Stewardship

The development of a new international legally binding instrument for the conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ agreement) is in the final negotiation phase.

Stopping overexploitation of living resources on the high seas

This paper reviews the provisions and efforts to implement the 1946 International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW) and the 1980 Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR).

The ARNAVON MARINE PARK (a Community-Managed Conservation Initiative) - CONSERVATION & MANAGEMENT PLAN (Revised)

This Conservation and Management Plan was the culmination of a community-wide consultation undertaken to review the 20-year old ACMCA Management Plan first endorsed in 1994.The scope of this Plan is dictated by AMP’s status as an established and internationally recognized conservation program tha

The Cook Islands (South Pacific) experience in governance of seabed manganese nodule mining

The Cook Islands (CI), South Pacific, has one of the highest ratios of ocean to land area of any ocean island state in the world.

Transparency in fisheries conservation and management measures

The adoption of effective fisheries conservation and management measures (‘CMM’) represents a critical stage in the process of sustainably managing global fishing stocks.

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