Skip to main content
The resources outlined below are designed to assist practitioners in the challenging area of governing protected areas.  This subject area is divided into two parts:

Governance and Legislation Guidance

A combination of global guidance documents for governance and Pacific related papers addressing legislation gaps in certain countries and discussing legal frameworks for community-based management etc

Enforcement and Compliance

Useful guidance papers developed by PIMPAC for conservation officers in the Pacific Islands, as well as some more general papers on enforcement in protected areas.  There is also a resource discussing the use of economic incentives for community-based nature conservation.

A Guide to Establishing a Program Compliance and Enforcement Plan

A Guide to Establishing a Program Compliance and Enforcement Plan. Pacific Islands Managed and Protected Areas Community (PIMPAC) document: Conservation Enforcement Training

A Step‐by‐Step Guide for Developing Effective Standard Operating Procedures for Conservation Enforcement Programs

Pacific Islands Managed and Protected Areas Community (PIMPAC) document: Conservation Enforcement Training

A sustainable ocean economy in 2030: Opportunities and challenges

In this report the World Ocean Initiative assesses the challenges facing key sectors in the ocean economy, including seafood, shipping, tourism and renewable energy.

Addressing the implementation challenge of the global biodiversity framework

A Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF) is under discussion for the period 2021–2030, which will replace the ‘‘Aichi Targets’’ adopted by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in 2010.

Advancing Social Equity in and Through Marine Conservation

Substantial efforts and investments are being made to increase the scale and improve the effectiveness of marine conservation globally.

Area-based conservation in the twenty-first century

Humanity will soon define a new era for nature—one that seeks to transform decades of underwhelming responses to the global biodiversity crisis.

Biodiversity and Protected Areas

Protected areas are key to biodiversity conservation. While the value of protected areas is generally undisputed, challenges remain.

Biodiversity needs every tool in the box: use OECMs

Global support is growing for the 30 × 30 movement — a goal to conserve 30% of the planet by 2030. In May, the G7 group of wealthy nations endorsed the commitment to this target that had been made by more than 50 countries in January.

Blue Pacific Ocean 2021 Report

This Blue Pacific Ocean 2021 Report (BPOR) is indeed a first of its kind.

Community-Based Incentives for Nature Conservation

Emerton, L. 2001.  Community-Based Incentives for Nature Conservation.  IUCN The World Conservation Union, Eastern Africa Regional Office and Economics Unit.

Community-Based Management

Community Based Management resources

Considering Indigenous Peoples and local communities in governance of the global ocean commons

The United Nations are currently negotiating a new international legally-binding instrument to govern the global ocean commons, a vast area beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ) owned by everyone but not cared for by any single entity.

COVID-19 and protected areas: Impacts, conflicts, and possible management solutions

During the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, management authorities of numerous Protected Areas (PAs) had to discourage visitors from accessing them in order to reduce the virus transmission rate and protect local communities.

COVID-ERA POLICIES AND ECONOMIC RECOVERY PLANS: ARE GOVERNMENTS BUILDING BACK BETTER FOR PROTECTED AND CONSERVED AREAS?

The COVID-19 pandemic is having a major impact on conservation policies and practice at multiple scales, including protected and conserved areas (PCAs). There is a need to understand the implications for PCAs of recent actions, enacted or promoted in the wake of COVID-19.

Creating Legal Space for Community-based Fisheries and Customary Marine Tenure in the Pacific: Issues and Opportunities.

Kuemlangan, B. 2004. Creating Legal Space for Community-based Fisheries and Customary Marine Tenure in the Pacific: Issues and Opportunities. FishCode Review. No. 7 (En). Rome, FAO.

Ecological connectivity between the areas beyond national jurisdiction and coastal waters: Safeguarding interests of coastal communities in developing countries

The UN General Assembly has made a unanimous decision to start negotiations to establish an international, legally-binding instrument for the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity within Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction (ABNJ).

Enforcement and Coastal Development for Marine Conservation

Corrigan, C. 2007. Enforcement and Coastal Development for Marine Conservation. Innovations in Conservation Series. Parks in Peril Program. Arlington, VA, USA: The Nature Conservancy

EQUITABLE AND EFFECTIVE AREA‐BASED CONSERVATION: TOWARDS THE CONSERVED AREAS PARADIGM

In 2018, the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) adopted a decision on protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures (OECMs).

Fully Protected Marine Reserves: a Guide.

Roberts, C.M. and Hawkins,  J.P. 2000. Fully Protected Marine Reserves: a Guide. WWF Endangered Seas Campaign, Washington D.C.

Gender equality is diluted in commitments made to small-scale fisheries

Gender equality is a mainstream principle of good environmental governance and sustainable development. Progress toward gender equality in the fisheries sector is critical for effective and equitable development outcomes in coastal countries.

Governance Assessment for Protected and Conserved Areas (GAPA) - Methodology manual for GAPA facilitators

This manual provides detailed guidance for assessing the governance quality of protected areas (PAs) and other conserved areas (CAs) and any related conservation and development activities.

Governance of Protected Areas: From Understanding to Action.

Borrini-Feyerabend, G., Dudley, N. Jaeger, T., Lassen, B., Pathak Broome, N., Phillips, A. and Sandwith, T. 2013. Governance of Protected Areas: From Understanding to Action. Best Practice Protected Area Guidelines Series No.

Governance, Equity and the Green List

Good governance is fundamental to effective protected area (PA) design, planning, and management operations, and the degree to which these are equitable in terms of the recognition and engagement of key actors, and the distribution of benefits and costs/burdens.

Governing MPAs – Getting the Balance Right

Jones, P.J.S, Qiu W., and De Santo E.M. 2011. Governing MPAs – Getting the Balance Right. Technical Report, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)

Guide to Writing and Filing Incident Reports and Citations for Conservation Officers

Guide to Writing and Filing Incident Reports and Citations for Conservation Officers. Pacific Islands Managed and Protected Areas Community (PIMPAC) document: Conservation Enforcement Training

Guidelines for Protected Area Legislation

Barbara., L. 2011. Guidelines for Protected Area Legislation. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Guidelines for Protected Area Legislation

Lausche, B. 2011. Guidelines for Protected Area Legislation. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. 

Harnessing the diversity of small-scale actors is key to the future of aquatic food systems

Small-scale fisheries and aquaculture (SSFA) provide livelihoods for over 100 million people and sustenance for ~1 billion people, particularly in the Global South.

High-seas fish biodiversity is slipping through the governance net

States at the United Nations have begun negotiating a new treaty to strengthen the legal regime for marine biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction.

How MPAs Safeguard the High Seas

The high seas begin 200 nautical miles from coastal shores, beyond the jurisdiction of any country. Their vast expanse and distance from shore pose challenges for exploration and knowledge gathering.

Jaluit Atoll Background Report Environmental Resource Management Plan

The goals of the Jaluit Atoll Environmental Resource Management Plan (ERMP) are to provide all stakeholders with a framework to guide environmental resource management initiatives that will assist the community to maintain healthy marine and terrestrial environments for current and future generat

Legal Mechanisms for the Establishment and Management of Terrestrial Protected Areas in Fiji

Clarke, P. Gillespie, C.T.  2009. Legal Mechanisms for the Establishment and Management of Terrestrial Protected Areas in Fiji.  IUCN. Suva, Fiji.

Locally-managed marine areas: multiple objectives and diverse strategies

Community-based management and co-management are mainstream approaches to marine conservation and sustainable resource management. In the tropical Pacific, these approaches have proliferated through locally-managed marine areas (LMMAs).

Making Money Local: Can Protected Areas Deliver Both Economic Benefits and Conservation Objectives?

This publication has been developed as a contribution to Phase II of the Two-phase Strategy on Protected Areas of the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and prepared pursuant to various paragraphs of COP decision XIII/2 on protected areas, in particular paragraph 5(a-e),

Marine Protected Areas Policy and Legislation Gap Analysis: Fiji Islands.

Techera, E.J. and Troniak, S. 2009.  Marine Protected Areas Policy and Legislation Gap Analysis: Fiji Islands. IUCN Regional Office for Oceania, Suva, Fiji.

Marine-Related Learning Networks: Shifting the Paradigm Toward Collaborative Ocean Governance

Formal and semi-formal networks are emerging as effective, collaborative, and adaptable approaches for addressing complex, rapidly evolving ocean governance issues.

Marshall Islands' National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan

The purpose of this Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (BSAP) is to Assist the Marshall Islands to Plan for the Conservation of its biodiversity and for in the sustainable use of its biological resources.

Meanings and more... Policy Brief of the ICCA Consortium, Issue No. 7

In 2018 the Council of the ICCA Consortium decided to develop a lexicon of meaningful, and at times complex, concepts and terms frequently used in its work, policies and relations with its Members and Partners.

Model Law for Protection of Traditional Ecological Knowledge

Model Law for Protection of Traditional Ecological Knowledge.  Unknown Source.  Available Through GRAIN Website.

Motivations to Support Marine Conservation Projects in North Tarawa, Kiribati

Local communities’ support for resource conservation projects are essential for their success. Nevertheless, in the Pacific Island countries, many community-based conservation (CBC) projects remain ineffective due to the lack of community members’ engagement.

Pacific Islands Framework for Nature Conservation and Protected Areas 2021- 2025 DRAFT

This Pacific Islands Framework for Nature Conservation and Protected Areas2021-2025 is the principal
regional strategy document for environmental conservation in the Pacific. Its purpose is to guide broad

PARKS The International Journal of Protected Areas and Conservation, Issue 27 Special Issue on COVID-19 MARCH 2021

This special issue of PARKS is devoted to the impact and implications of COVID-19 on the world’s protected and conserved areas.

Promoting sustainable and inclusive oceans management in Pacific islands through women and science

The question of how to efficiently and effectively manage ocean resources in a sustainable way has reached the forefront of discussion at an international level, but women's contributions to this process have been underestimated or unrecognized.

Protected Area Governance and Management

This book has been prepared as a contribution to the IUCN World Parks Congress in Sydney in 2014. The global community is at the interface of ensuring the quality of protected area governance and management, together with the way that effectively managed and

Reimmanlok - Marshall Islands' National Conservation Area Plan

Global biodiversity loss is rapid and ongoing. International efforts are redoubling as the international community realizes the importance of biodiversity in maintaining our life support systems.

Republic of Fiji National Ocean Policy 2020-2030

Fijians have been at the forefront of ocean action and leadership because it i our responsibility as an oceanic people. Fiji is a nation of over 300 islands whose past, present and future are intrinsically linked to the ocean.