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There is a wealth of information that can be used by managers when designing individual protected areas and protected area networks. These guidelines can maximize the benefits for conservation, fisheries, climate change, livelihood security, biodiversity and a host of other factors.  The resources in this section contain some papers that provide excellent background information and guidance for designing protecting areas in addition to some of the latest science-backed guidelines for designing protected area networks.

A Global Standard for the Identification of Key Biodiversity Areas

The KBA Standard is formally taken to include definitions, the criteria and thresholds, and delineation procedures.

A PRACTICAL GUIDE TO THE EFFECTIVE DESIGN AND MANAGEMENT OF MPAs FOR SHARKS AND RAYS

This Guide has been produced to provide practical, science-based advice on how to maximize the effectiveness of both new and existing shark and ray MPAs, to ensure these animals are protected now and far into the future.

An Introduction to the MPA guide

The Marine Protected Area (MPA) Guide refines existing language and captures a shared vision to describe MPAs and the conservation outcomes they provide. The Guide is the work of many hundreds of stakeholders from around the world.

BIOPHYSICALLY SPECIAL, UNIQUE MARINE AREAS OF FIJI

This report outlines the process undertaken to define and describe the special, unique marine areas of Fiji.

Characteristics of effective marine protected areas in Hawaiʻi

Ancient Hawaiians developed sophisticated natural resource management systems that included various forms of spatial management.

Cost-effective priorities for the expansion of global terrestrial protected areas: Setting post-2020 global and national targets

Biodiversity loss is a social and ecological emergency, and calls have been made for the global expansion of protected areas (PAs) to tackle this crisis. It is unclear, however, where best to locate new PAs to protect biodiversity cost-effectively.

Data-driven approach for highlighting priority areas for protection in marine areas beyond national jurisdiction

One of the aims of the United Nations (UN) negotiations on the conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ) is to develop a legal process for the establishment of area-based management tools, including marine protected areas, in ABNJ.

Designing Marine Spatial Planning Legislation for Implementation: A Guide for Legal Drafters May 2020

The Guide contains information about essential components and sub-components of marine spatial planning legislation, describing each and highlighting its role and significance.

Designing protected area networks that translate international conservation commitments into national action

 Here we undertake a cost-effective approach to protected area planning in Guyana that accounts for in-country conditions.

Developing a framework for the efficient design and management of large scale marine protected areas

This study identifies the importance of: acquiring robust baseline data, being fully protected (no-take), using ecosystembased management, community inclusion, and of adopting an ecologically connected network approach.

Environmental representativity in marine protected area networks over large and partly unexplored seascapes

Converting assemblages of marine protected areas (MPAs) into functional MPA networks requires political will, multidisciplinary information, coordinated action and time.

Establishing Resilient Marine Protected Area Networks - Making it Happen

IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas (IUCN-WCPA). 2008. Establishing Resilient Marine Protected Area Networks - Making it Happen. Washington, D.C.: IUCN-WCPA, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and The Nature Conservancy.

Final Evaluation of the project “Forestry and Protected Area Management in Fiji, Samoa, Vanuatu and Niue (GEFPAS-FPAM)”

This report presents the findings of the Final Evaluation of the six year1 Global Environment Facility – Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (GEF-FAO) Forest Protected Area Management (FPAM) in Fiji, Samoa, Vanuatu and Niue project, which was implemented between January 2012 a

Framework for Nature Conservation and Protected Areas in the Pacific Islands Region, 2014-2020

The 9th Pacific Islands Conference on Nature Conservation and Protected Areas held in Suva, Fiji, December 2013 produced and adopted a new Framework for Nature Conservation and Protected Areas in the Pacific Islands Region 2014-2020.

Fully-Protected Marine Reserves: a Guide.

Roberts, C.M. and J.P. Hawkins. 2000. Fully-Protected Marine Reserves: a Guide. WWF Endangered Seas Campaign, Washington, DC 20037, USA and Environment Department, University of York, York, UK.

Gaps in Protection of Important Ocean Areas: A Spatial Meta-Analysis of Ten Global Mapping Initiatives

To safeguard biodiversity effectively, marine protected areas (MPAs) should be sited using the best available science. There are numerous ongoing United Nations and nongovernmental initiatives to map globally important marine areas.

Going Big in the Pacific Large-Scale Marine Protected Areas in the Pacific Ocean

The definition of large-scale marine protected areas in the Pacific Ocean is fundamental to the achievement of global marine conservation targets.

Guidelines for conserving connectivity through ecological networks and corridors

Ecological connectivity is the unimpeded movement of species and the flow of natural processes that sustain life on Earth.

Guidelines for Establishing Marine Protected Areas

Kelleher, G. and Kenchington, R. 1992. Guidelines for Establishing Marine Protected Areas. A Marine Conservation and Development Report. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland

Marine Conservation Agreements - Guidance for the Tourism Industry in Fiji

This summary provides resorts, tourism operators, and policy makers with an introduction to marine conservation agreements (MCA) and outlines a process for planning and implementing an MCA in Fiji.

Marshall Islands' National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan

The purpose of this Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (BSAP) is to Assist the Marshall Islands to Plan for the Conservation of its biodiversity and for in the sustainable use of its biological resources.

Perspectives on Marine Protected Areas

Different perspectives to best manage the Pacific Ocean in the interests of all who live there.

Predicting impact to assess the efficacy of community-based marine reserve design

During the planning phase the efficacy of different strategies to manage marine resources should ultimately be assessed by their potential impact, or ability to make a difference to ecological and social outcomes.

Preserving Reef Connectivity: A Handbook for Marine Protected Area Managers

Sale,P.F., Lavieren, H.V., Ablan Lagman, M.C., Atema, J., Butler, M., Fauvelot, C., Hogan, J.D., Jones, G.P, Lindeman, K.C., Paris, C.B., Steneck, R., Stewart, H.L.

Priority Sites for Conservation in Kiribati: Key Biodiversity Areas

This KBA report outlines key recommendations for the Government of Kiribati and its people for protecting its unique biodiversity and supporting sustainable livelihoods. A total of twenty-two island KBAs were identified and suggested for immediate management.

Protected Area Short Courses in Australia, Asia and the Pacific: training issues, needs and recommendations

This report is the outcome of a review commissioned by the Protected Areas Learning and Research Collaboration (PALRC) in 2018, with the following aims:

Protected areas are now the last strongholds for many imperiled mammal species

The global network of terrestrial protected areas (PAs) has experienced a fourfold expansion since the 1970s.

Protecting 30% of the planet for nature: costs, benefits and economic implications

The current report, based on the work of over 100 economists/scientists, analyses the global economic implications of a 30% PA target for agriculture, forestry, fisheries, and the PA/nature sector itself.

Protecting 30% of the planet for nature: costs, benefits and economic implications

The current report, based on the work of over 100 economists/scientists, analyses the global economic implications of a 30% PA target for agriculture, forestry, fisheries, and the PA/nature sector itself.

Recognising and reporting other effective area-based conservation measures

Many areas outside national and regional protected area networks also contribute to the effective in-situ conservation of biodiversity. Appropriately recognising, reporting and supporting such areas is increasingly important in the context of biodiversity loss and climate change.

Reimmanlok - Marshall Islands' National Conservation Area Plan

Global biodiversity loss is rapid and ongoing. International efforts are redoubling as the international community realizes the importance of biodiversity in maintaining our life support systems.

Rights of Nature: Perspectives for Global Ocean Stewardship

The development of a new international legally binding instrument for the conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ agreement) is in the final negotiation phase.

The Case for Marine Protected Areas

Ocean health is critical to all life on this planet.

The current application of ecological connectivity in the design of marine protected areas

Marine protected areas (MPAs) are an area-based conservation strategy commonly used to safeguard marine biodiversity and ecosystem services.

The Science of Marine Reserves

Partnership for Interdisciplinary Studies of Coastal Oceans. 2007. The Science of Marine Reserves. 2nd Edition, International Version

The value of offshore marine protected areas for open ocean habitats and species

This paper reviews the value of, especially, no-take marine protected areas (MPAs), specifically for protecting offshore areas.

Towards a framework for higher education for marine spatial planning

The implementation of marine spatial planning (MSP) is bringing together a new body of practitioners who are largely drawn from related professions but have relatively little specific education, training or qualifications in MSP.

Traditional knowledge and the BBNJ instrument

Indigenous Peoples and local communities (IPLCs) are the holders of a vast amount of traditional knowledge of the ocean and its resources.

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