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There is a wealth of information that can be used by managers when designing individual protected areas and protected area networks. These guidelines can maximize the benefits for conservation, fisheries, climate change, livelihood security, biodiversity and a host of other factors.  The resources in this section contain some papers that provide excellent background information and guidance for designing protecting areas in addition to some of the latest science-backed guidelines for designing protected area networks.

A Global Standard for the Identification of Key Biodiversity Areas

The KBA Standard is formally taken to include definitions, the criteria and thresholds, and delineation procedures.


This Guide has been produced to provide practical, science-based advice on how to maximize the effectiveness of both new and existing shark and ray MPAs, to ensure these animals are protected now and far into the future.


This report outlines the process undertaken to define and describe the special, unique marine areas of Fiji.

Designing protected area networks that translate international conservation commitments into national action

 Here we undertake a cost-effective approach to protected area planning in Guyana that accounts for in-country conditions.

Developing a framework for the efficient design and management of large scale marine protected areas

This study identifies the importance of: acquiring robust baseline data, being fully protected (no-take), using ecosystembased management, community inclusion, and of adopting an ecologically connected network approach.

Establishing Resilient Marine Protected Area Networks - Making it Happen

IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas (IUCN-WCPA). 2008. Establishing Resilient Marine Protected Area Networks - Making it Happen. Washington, D.C.: IUCN-WCPA, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and The Nature Conservancy.

Final Evaluation of the project “Forestry and Protected Area Management in Fiji, Samoa, Vanuatu and Niue (GEFPAS-FPAM)”

This report presents the findings of the Final Evaluation of the six year1 Global Environment Facility – Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (GEF-FAO) Forest Protected Area Management (FPAM) in Fiji, Samoa, Vanuatu and Niue project, which was implemented between January 2012 a

Fully-Protected Marine Reserves: a Guide.

Roberts, C.M. and J.P. Hawkins. 2000. Fully-Protected Marine Reserves: a Guide. WWF Endangered Seas Campaign, Washington, DC 20037, USA and Environment Department, University of York, York, UK.

Guidelines for Establishing Marine Protected Areas

Kelleher, G. and Kenchington, R. 1992. Guidelines for Establishing Marine Protected Areas. A Marine Conservation and Development Report. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland

Perspectives on Marine Protected Areas

Different perspectives to best manage the Pacific Ocean in the interests of all who live there.

Predicting impact to assess the efficacy of community-based marine reserve design

During the planning phase the efficacy of different strategies to manage marine resources should ultimately be assessed by their potential impact, or ability to make a difference to ecological and social outcomes.

Preserving Reef Connectivity: A Handbook for Marine Protected Area Managers

Sale,P.F., Lavieren, H.V., Ablan Lagman, M.C., Atema, J., Butler, M., Fauvelot, C., Hogan, J.D., Jones, G.P, Lindeman, K.C., Paris, C.B., Steneck, R., Stewart, H.L.

Protected Area Short Courses in Australia, Asia and the Pacific: training issues, needs and recommendations

This report is the outcome of a review commissioned by the Protected Areas Learning and Research Collaboration (PALRC) in 2018, with the following aims:

The Science of Marine Reserves

Partnership for Interdisciplinary Studies of Coastal Oceans. 2007. The Science of Marine Reserves. 2nd Edition, International Version

The value of offshore marine protected areas for open ocean habitats and species

This paper reviews the value of, especially, no-take marine protected areas (MPAs), specifically for protecting offshore areas.

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