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There is a wealth of information that can be used by managers when designing individual protected areas and protected area networks. These guidelines can maximize the benefits for conservation, fisheries, climate change, livelihood security, biodiversity and a host of other factors.  The resources in this section contain some papers that provide excellent background information and guidance for designing protecting areas in addition to some of the latest science-backed guidelines for designing protected area networks.

A global network of marine protected areas for food

Marine protected areas (MPAs) are conservation tools that are increasingly implemented, with growing national commitments for MPA expansion. Perhaps the greatest challenge to expanded use of MPAs is the perceived trade-off between protection and food production.

A Global Standard for the Identification of Key Biodiversity Areas

The KBA Standard is formally taken to include definitions, the criteria and thresholds, and delineation procedures.

A PRACTICAL GUIDE TO THE EFFECTIVE DESIGN AND MANAGEMENT OF MPAs FOR SHARKS AND RAYS

This Guide has been produced to provide practical, science-based advice on how to maximize the effectiveness of both new and existing shark and ray MPAs, to ensure these animals are protected now and far into the future.

An Introduction to the MPA guide

The Marine Protected Area (MPA) Guide refines existing language and captures a shared vision to describe MPAs and the conservation outcomes they provide. The Guide is the work of many hundreds of stakeholders from around the world.

Best Practice in Delivering the 30x30 Target

This guidance document identifies the best options for successful delivery of draft Target 3 of the Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF) from the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). There is good evidence that this will radically increase the success of biodiversity conservation.

Biodiversity and Protected Areas

Protected areas are key to biodiversity conservation. While the value of protected areas is generally undisputed, challenges remain.

Biodiversity needs every tool in the box: use OECMs

Global support is growing for the 30 × 30 movement — a goal to conserve 30% of the planet by 2030. In May, the G7 group of wealthy nations endorsed the commitment to this target that had been made by more than 50 countries in January.

BIOPHYSICALLY SPECIAL, UNIQUE MARINE AREAS OF FIJI

This report outlines the process undertaken to define and describe the special, unique marine areas of Fiji.

Biophysically special, unique marine areas of Fiji.

Fiji is committed to, and is embarking upon, a process to significantly increase the number and coverage of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) within the country.

Biophysically special, unique marine areas of Tonga.

In 2015, the Tongan Cabinet embarked upon a National Marine Spatial Planning process, establishing a marine spatial planning technical working group comprising seven Ministries (the “Ocean 7”). One of their tasks was to identify Tonga’s special, unique marine areas.

Change in Terrestrial Human Footprint Drives Continued Loss of Intact Ecosystems

Human pressure mapping is important for understanding humanity’s role in shaping Earth’s patterns and processes. We provide the latest maps of the terrestrial human footprint and provide an assessment of change in human pressure across Earth.

Characteristics of effective marine protected areas in Hawaiʻi

Ancient Hawaiians developed sophisticated natural resource management systems that included various forms of spatial management.

Climate benefits from establishing marine protected areas targeted at blue carbon solutions

Marine protected areas (MPAs) are recognized as highly effective tools for marine conservation. They may also play an important role in mitigating climate change.

Conservation of birds in fragmented landscapes requires protected areas

For successful conservation of biodiversity, it is vital to know whether protected areas in increasingly fragmented landscapes effectively safeguard species. However, how large habitat fragments must be, and what level of protection is required to sustain species, remains poorly known.

CONSERVING AT LEAST 30% OF THE PLANET BY 2030 – What should count?

This brief seeks to bring clarity to the question of what could count toward the 30% global minimum target. within the context of recognized area-based conservation measures and their ability to deliver positive long-term conservation outcomes.

Cost-effective priorities for the expansion of global terrestrial protected areas: Setting post-2020 global and national targets

Biodiversity loss is a social and ecological emergency, and calls have been made for the global expansion of protected areas (PAs) to tackle this crisis. It is unclear, however, where best to locate new PAs to protect biodiversity cost-effectively.

Data-driven approach for highlighting priority areas for protection in marine areas beyond national jurisdiction

One of the aims of the United Nations (UN) negotiations on the conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ) is to develop a legal process for the establishment of area-based management tools, including marine protected areas, in ABNJ.

Defining ‘science-based targets’

Setting targets for addressing major planetary concerns is an essential prerequisite for concerted global action (both inside and outside multilateral environmental agreements) and is necessarily a societal and political process, requiring negotiation and convergence among oftenconflicting intere

Designing Marine Spatial Planning Legislation for Implementation: A Guide for Legal Drafters May 2020

The Guide contains information about essential components and sub-components of marine spatial planning legislation, describing each and highlighting its role and significance.

Designing protected area networks that translate international conservation commitments into national action

 Here we undertake a cost-effective approach to protected area planning in Guyana that accounts for in-country conditions.

Developing a framework for the efficient design and management of large scale marine protected areas

This study identifies the importance of: acquiring robust baseline data, being fully protected (no-take), using ecosystembased management, community inclusion, and of adopting an ecologically connected network approach.

Environmental representativity in marine protected area networks over large and partly unexplored seascapes

Converting assemblages of marine protected areas (MPAs) into functional MPA networks requires political will, multidisciplinary information, coordinated action and time.

EQUITABLE AND EFFECTIVE AREA‐BASED CONSERVATION: TOWARDS THE CONSERVED AREAS PARADIGM

In 2018, the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) adopted a decision on protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures (OECMs).

Establishing Resilient Marine Protected Area Networks - Making it Happen

IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas (IUCN-WCPA). 2008. Establishing Resilient Marine Protected Area Networks - Making it Happen. Washington, D.C.: IUCN-WCPA, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and The Nature Conservancy.

Final Evaluation of the project “Forestry and Protected Area Management in Fiji, Samoa, Vanuatu and Niue (GEFPAS-FPAM)”

This report presents the findings of the Final Evaluation of the six year1 Global Environment Facility – Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (GEF-FAO) Forest Protected Area Management (FPAM) in Fiji, Samoa, Vanuatu and Niue project, which was implemented between January 2012 a

Five culturally protected water body practices in Fiji: Current status and contemporary displacement challenges

Community-based natural resource management in Oceania has its roots in culturally protected water body(CPWB) practices. However, CPWBs in Fiji have been under-researched regarding what practices exist, and the extent to which they are currently practiced.

Framework for Nature Conservation and Protected Areas in the Pacific Islands Region, 2014-2020

The 9th Pacific Islands Conference on Nature Conservation and Protected Areas held in Suva, Fiji, December 2013 produced and adopted a new Framework for Nature Conservation and Protected Areas in the Pacific Islands Region 2014-2020.

Fully-Protected Marine Reserves: a Guide.

Roberts, C.M. and J.P. Hawkins. 2000. Fully-Protected Marine Reserves: a Guide. WWF Endangered Seas Campaign, Washington, DC 20037, USA and Environment Department, University of York, York, UK.

Gains in biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services from the expansion of the planet’s protected areas

Protected areas safeguard biodiversity, ensure ecosystem functioning, and deliver ecosystem services to communities. However, only ~16% of the world’s land area is under some form of protection, prompting international calls to protect at least 30% by 2030.

Gaps in Protection of Important Ocean Areas: A Spatial Meta-Analysis of Ten Global Mapping Initiatives

To safeguard biodiversity effectively, marine protected areas (MPAs) should be sited using the best available science. There are numerous ongoing United Nations and nongovernmental initiatives to map globally important marine areas.

Global protected areas seem insufficient to safeguard half of the world's mammals from human-induced extinction

Protected areas (PAs) are a cornerstone of global conservation and central to international plans to minimize global extinctions.

Going Big in the Pacific Large-Scale Marine Protected Areas in the Pacific Ocean

The definition of large-scale marine protected areas in the Pacific Ocean is fundamental to the achievement of global marine conservation targets.

Guidelines for conserving connectivity through ecological networks and corridors

Ecological connectivity is the unimpeded movement of species and the flow of natural processes that sustain life on Earth.

Guidelines for Establishing Marine Protected Areas

Kelleher, G. and Kenchington, R. 1992. Guidelines for Establishing Marine Protected Areas. A Marine Conservation and Development Report. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland

How is your MPA Doing?

This guidebook offers managers and other conservation practitioners a process and methods to evaluate the effectiveness of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) for the purposes of Adaptive Management.

Improving biodiversity protection through artificial intelligence

Over a million species face extinction, highlighting the urgent need for conservation policies that maximize the protection of biodiversity to sustain its manifold contributions to people’s lives.

Locally-managed marine areas: multiple objectives and diverse strategies

Community-based management and co-management are mainstream approaches to marine conservation and sustainable resource management. In the tropical Pacific, these approaches have proliferated through locally-managed marine areas (LMMAs).

Marine Conservation Agreements - Guidance for the Tourism Industry in Fiji

This summary provides resorts, tourism operators, and policy makers with an introduction to marine conservation agreements (MCA) and outlines a process for planning and implementing an MCA in Fiji.

Marshall Islands' National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan

The purpose of this Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (BSAP) is to Assist the Marshall Islands to Plan for the Conservation of its biodiversity and for in the sustainable use of its biological resources.

National and Regional Networks of marine protected areas: a review of progress

Most of the marine protected areas (MPAs) around the world, estimated to number about 5000, have been established both on an ad hoc basis and through systematic planning processes. The

Nauru Biological Rapid Assessment (BIORAP) - Full Report

The findings of this BIORAP survey have identified or re-confirmed the critical importance of the biodiversity and ecosystems of Nauru's terrestrial and marine environments and the urgent need for follow-up activities to manage and mitigate threats for their conservation.

Pacific Islands Framework for Nature Conservation and Protected Areas 2021- 2025

This Pacific Islands Framework for Nature Conservation and Protected Areas2021-2025 is the principal regional strategy document for environmental conservation in the Pacific.

Pacific Islands Framework for Nature Conservation and Protected Areas 2021-2025

This new Pacific Islands framework for Nature Conservation and Protected Areas 2021-2025 was endorsed during the conference and subsequently at the 30th SPREP Meeting by 26 members countries and territories in 2021.

PARKS The International Journal of Protected Areas and Conservation, Issue 27 Special Issue on COVID-19 MARCH 2021

This special issue of PARKS is devoted to the impact and implications of COVID-19 on the world’s protected and conserved areas.

Perspectives on Marine Protected Areas

Different perspectives to best manage the Pacific Ocean in the interests of all who live there.

PIPAP GIS Supplementary Training Video 1 : QGIS Basics

This package/collection of training materials constitute an introductory, basic-level training to open source GIS software (QGIS) targeting technical-level government officers.