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Hunga Tonga-Hunga Haʻapai eruption as seen from the GOES satellite. Credit: NASA/ NOAA
November 22, 2022

In December 2021, a volcano in the Kingdom of Tonga, known as Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai, began erupting in an event that culminated in an explosion so powerful it sent atmospheric ripples circling the planet multiple times. The ferocious 2021 explosion blew out 2.3 cubic miles of rock, unleashing a 35-mile-high plume and a global tsunami that sent scientists racing to understand the blast. Now they're finally putting together the pieces.

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