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Addressing the implementation challenge of the global biodiversity framework

A Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF) is under discussion for the period 2021–2030, which will replace the ‘‘Aichi Targets’’ adopted by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in 2010. Given the limited success in meeting most of the Aichi Targets, this new framework must adopt a different approach. A key challenge the GBF must address is its implementation at national scales. Four ways this implementation challenge can be addressed include:

The Case for Marine Protected Areas

Ocean health is critical to all life on this planet. Phytoplankton, the microscopic plants found in the sunlit area of almost all oceans, generate about half of the Earth’s oxygen, and the complex interaction between the ocean and the atmosphere sustains our climate. Yet the oceans are in decline, largely because of human activities that are driving the collapse of fisheries, the loss of biodiversity, and the acidification of seawater.

Going Big in the Pacific Large-Scale Marine Protected Areas in the Pacific Ocean

The definition of large-scale marine protected areas in the Pacific Ocean is fundamental to the achievement of global marine conservation targets. The threatened nature of the global ocean is emphasised, the evolution of global spatial targets for marine conservation outlined and the implementation of large-scale marine protected areas in Australia and the Pacific Ocean more broadly is reviewed. The article concludes with some reflections on the efficacy of such mechanisms in the Pacific.

Rights of Nature: Perspectives for Global Ocean Stewardship

The development of a new international legally binding instrument for the conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ agreement) is in the final negotiation phase. Legal recognition of rights of nature is emerging worldwide as a fresh imperative to preserve ecological integrity, safeguard human wellbeing, broaden participation in decision-making, and give a voice to nature – but so far exclusively within national jurisdiction. In this paper, we consider how a Rights of Nature perspective might inform the BBNJ agreement.

Protecting 30% of the planet for nature: costs, benefits and economic implications

The current report, based on the work of over 100 economists/scientists, analyses the global economic implications of a 30% PA target for agriculture, forestry, fisheries, and the PA/nature sector itself. (OECMs were only defined by the CBD in 2018, too recently to economically model, but we include a qualitative treatment of them.) n We carried out two analyses: a global financial one (concrete revenues and costs only); and a tropicsfocused economic one (including non-monetary ecosystem service values), for multiple scenarios of how a 30% PA target might be implemented.

Protecting 30% of the planet for nature: costs, benefits and economic implications

The current report, based on the work of over 100 economists/scientists, analyses the global economic implications of a 30% PA target for agriculture, forestry, fisheries, and the PA/nature sector itself. (OECMs were only defined by the CBD in 2018, too recently to economically model, but we include a qualitative treatment of them.) n We carried out two analyses: a global financial one (concrete revenues and costs only); and a tropicsfocused economic one (including non-monetary ecosystem service values), for multiple scenarios of how a 30% PA target might be implemented.