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Protected Area targets have been set globally, regionally, and sometimes at a country level. During the last decade, the global protected area targets that all country signatories to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) committed to were the CBD's Aichi Biodiversity Targets.  Specifically, Aichi Target 11 which stated that:

at least 17 per cent of terrestrial and inland water, and 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services, are conserved through effectively and equitably managed, ecologically representative and well connected systems of protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures, and integrated into the wider landscapes and seascapes by 2020.

The new Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF) was adopted in December 2022 at the 15th Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD COP15). CBD country signatories have committed to implementing the protected area target (Target 3) of the new GBF by the year 2030. The text of Target 3 is below:

Ensure and enable that by 2030 at least 30 per cent of terrestrial, inland water, and of coastal and marine areas, especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem functions and services, are effectively conserved and managed through ecologically representative, well-connected and equitably governed systems of protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures, recognizing indigenous and traditional territories, where applicable, and integrated into wider landscapes, seascapes and the ocean, while ensuring that any sustainable use, where appropriate in such areas, is fully consistent with conservation outcomes, recognizing and respecting the rights of indigenous peoples and local communities including over their traditional territories.

Regionally, the Micronesia Challenge aims to effectively conserve at least 30% of near-shore marine resources and 20% of terrestrial resources across Micronesia by 2020. An example of a country-based target is Fiji that aims to have 30% of reefs protected by 2015 and 30% of waters managed as a marine protected area network by 2020. During the 24th Micronesia Island Forum in 2019, the Leaders recognized the success in the first 15 years of the Micronesia Challenge and endorsed the new Micronesia Challenge 2030 goals to effectively manage 50% of marine resources, including the exclusive economic zone (EEZ), and 30% of terrestrial resources by 2030. 

Below are various efforts that have been carried out to assess global and regional progress towards the Aichi protected area targets. The paper by Govan (2009) is the most comprehensive assessment of marine protected areas (MPAs), including all LMMAs in the Pacific Islands. Govan’s data has now been incorporated into the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA).  Several of the papers below attempt to assess progress towards targets which relate to factors such as management effectiveness, biodiversity coverage, governance and finance etc. 

As we move closer to 2030, further technical guidance on implementing the new GBF Target 3 that becomes available will be added to the resources section below. Furthermore,  the resources section will be updated as needed to include any new papers or guidance related to taking stock of national, regional and global progress in implementing the GBF Target 3. 


Status of Large Marine Protected Areas in the Pacific

Keep current on the expansion of large marine protected areas (MPA)in the Pacific.

Status of Policy and Target Development and Implementation for Marine Protected Areas/Marine Managed Areas in the Pacific Islands Region - A Preliminary Assessment and Future Directions

Benzaken, D., Miller-Taei, S.,  Wood, L. 2007. Status of Policy and Target Development and Implementation for Marine Protected Areas/Marine Managed Areas in the Pacific Islands Region - A Preliminary Assessment and Future Directions

Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020, including Aichi Biodiversity Targets

In decision X/2, the tenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties, held from 18 to 29 October 2010, in Nagoya, Aichi Prefecture, Japan, adopted a revised and updated Strategic Plan for Biodiversity, including the 

Summary of the UN Biodiversity Conference: 7-19 December 2022

The first part of the UN Biodiversity Conference convened virtually from 11-15 October 2021, with a limited number of delegates physically present in Kunming, China.

Technical Report - Land Degradation Neutrality for Biodiversity Conservation

Land degradation and the loss of biological diversity are two of the most pressing environmental threats facing humanity. Both are eroding the planetary life support systems on which the prosperity and well-being of current and future generations depend.

Testing a global standard for quantifying species recovery and assessing conservation impact

Recognizing the imperative to evaluate species recovery and conservation impact, in 2012the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) called for development of a“Green List of Species” (now the IUCN Green Status of Species).

The ARNAVON MARINE PARK (a Community-Managed Conservation Initiative) - CONSERVATION & MANAGEMENT PLAN (Revised)

This Conservation and Management Plan was the culmination of a community-wide consultation undertaken to review the 20-year old ACMCA Management Plan first endorsed in 1994.The scope of this Plan is dictated by AMP’s status as an established and internationally recognized conservation program tha

The Case for Marine Protected Areas

Ocean health is critical to all life on this planet.

The CBD Post-2020 biodiversity framework: People's place within the rest of nature

Recognizing two decades of failure to achieve global goals and targets, parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity are in the final phase of negotiating a Post-   2020 Global Biodiversity Framework for the conservation, sustainable use and benefit sharing of biodiversity.

The effectiveness of global protected areas for climate change mitigation

Forests play a critical role in stabilizing Earth’s climate. Establishing protected areas (PAs) represents one approach to forest conservation, but PAs were rarely created to mitigate climate change.

The effects of protected areas on the ecological niches of birds and mammals

Protected areas are a cornerstone for biodiversity conservation, and typically support more natural and undisturbed habitats compared to unprotected lands. The effect of protected areas on intra-specific ecological niche has been rarely investigated.

The essential role of other effective area-based conservation measures in achieving big bold conservation targets

We argue that OECMs are essential to the achievement of big and bold conservation targets such as Half-Earth.

The Future of Our Ocean is in Our Hands: An Update on the Palau National Marine Sanctuary

Palau’s Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), with a total of 500,238 km2 (over 300,000 mi2 ), became a multi-zoned national MPA in 2015, through the Palau National Marine Sanctuary Act.

The Global Wetland Outlook: Special Edition 2021

As an update to the 2018 Global Wetland Outlook, this special edition on the occurrence of the Convention’s 50th anniversary presents new findings on the status and value of wetlands globally, particularly in the context of the global pandemic, climate and biodiversity crises an


The first edition of the Newsletter of the IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas Oceania (2019). IUCN's World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA) is the world's premier network of protected area expertise.


The fourth edition of the Newsletter of the IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas Oceania (2018). IUCN's World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA) is the world's premier network of protected area expertise.

The Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework: Business as usual or a turning point?

The Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF)1 was adopted during the 15th Conference of Parties (COP15) of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) at 3:30 a.m. on the morning of December 19, 2022, against a backdrop of protests by African countries.

The Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework: what it does and does not do, and how to improve it

The Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF) marks one of the most ambitious environmental agreements of the 21st century.

The Marine Spatial Planning Index: a tool to guide and assess marine spatial planning

Marine spatial planning (MSP) has the potential to balance demands for ocean space with environmental protection and is increasingly considered crucial for achieving global ocean goals.

The Republic of the Marshall Islands - State of Environment Report 2016

This report updates the 1992 State of Environment report with the latest findings from the Marshall Islands. Environmental reporting is defined as a requirement for RMI in the ‘Office of Environmental Planning and Policy Coordination (OEPPC) Act 2003’.

The role of Indigenous peoples and local communities in effective and equitable conservation

Debate about what proportion of the Earth to protect often overshadows the question of how nature should be conserved and by whom.

The three screen doors: Can marine “protected” areas be effective?

The great majority of marine protected areas (MPAs) fail to meet their management objectives. So MPAs can be effective conservation tools, we recommend two paradigm shifts, the first related to how they are located and the second related to how they are managed.

The ‘Paper Park Index’: Evaluating Marine Protected Area effectiveness through a global study of stakeholder perceptions

Governments around the world are increasingly committed to reaching terrestrial and marine conservation goals. But achieving such commitments is challenging, and conservation targets that are reached on paper, e.g., in terms of square kilometers protected, can be misleading.

The Pacific Islands Roundtable for Nature Conservation (PIRT)

The Pacific Islands Roundtable for Nature Conservation (PIRT) is a coalition of nature conservation and development organizations, governments, inter-government, donor agencies and community groups created to increase effective conservation action in the Pacific Island Region. It was established

Tonga - Rapid Biodiversity Assessment (BIORAP) of the Vava'u Archipelago

This report presents the results and recommendations of a Biological Rapid Assessment Programme (BIORAP) carried out in the marine and terrestrial environments of the Vava’u Archipelago, Tonga, from 13 to 28 February 2014.

Towards reducing misrepresentation of national achievements in marine protected area targets

Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) adopted 20 targets, known as the Aichi Targets, to benchmark progress towards protecting biodiversity.

Traditional knowledge and the BBNJ instrument

Indigenous Peoples and local communities (IPLCs) are the holders of a vast amount of traditional knowledge of the ocean and its resources.

Turning the Tide for Coral Reefs: the ICRI Plan of Action 2021-2024

The twin crises of climate change and biodiversity loss have brought into stark relief the need for greater collaboration and action at the international level to conserve, manage, and restore coral reefs.

United Nations List of Protected Areas 2018

The 2018 UN List provides up-to-date information on marine and terrestrial protected areas globally, and identifies those protected areas that have been the subject of management effectiveness evaluations.

Unity of Nature and Man: a new vision and conceptual framework for the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework

People live in nature. However, substantial evidence confirms that, under the pressure of anthropogenic alteration, nature is being fragmented, imperiled and becoming less able to provide essential services.

Use of surrogate species to cost-effectively prioritize conservation actions

Conservation efforts often focus on umbrella species whose distributions overlap with many other flora and fauna.

Vanuatu National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan [NBSAP] 2018-2030

Vanuatu signed and ratified the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (UNCBD) joining other 190 CBD parties to protect our global biodiversity. Vanuatu’s first National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP) was developed and endorsed in November 1999.

Vemööre Declaration : Commitments to nature conservation action in the Pacific Islands region, 2021-2025

“Vemööre” is a term in the Kwenyï language spoken by people from the Isle of Pines in New Caledonia.

Video - An ingenious proposal for scaling up marine protection | The Nature Conservancy

Island and coastal nations need to protect their waters to keep the oceans healthy. But they often have lots of debt and aren't able to prioritize ocean conservation over other needs.

Video - BIOPAMA grantees' voices: MELAD Kiribati

Experiences from the Kiribati Ministry of Environment, Lands and Agricultural Development regarding their medium grant under the EU-ACP BIOPAMA Action Component focusing on management interventions for the Kiritimati Island Conservation Protected Area.

Video - National Protected Areas Forum highlights 2021, Papua New Guinea

The aim of the National Protected Areas Forum was to fulfill mandates and strengthen policies to protect the country’s abundant natural assets into the future to benefit all life and future generations.

Video - Palau: Nest of Life

Palauans describe the environment as "Lukel a Klengar" - the nest of life.

Visitors Count! Guidance for protected areas on the economic analysis of visitation

This guidance document aims to build awareness, knowledge, and capacity internationally on how to best undertake economic evaluations of tourism in protected areas, and thereby contribute towards a globally acknowledged standard methodology.

Vuri Clan Forest Conservation Area Management Plan - Choiseul Province, Solomon Islands

This Management Plan was prepared by the representatives of the Vuri Clan of Sikipozo Tribe in partnership with the Natural Resources Development Foundation (NRDF), Ecological Solutions Solomon Islands (ESSI), World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF-SI), the Ministry of Forestry and Research (National He

What determines the effectiveness of national protected area networks?

More than 15% of global terrestrial area is under some form of protection and there is a growing impetus to increase this coverage to 30% by 2030. But not all protection is effective and the reasons some countries’ protected areas (PAs) are more effective than others’ are poorly understood.

What's on the horizon for community-based conservation? Emerging threats and opportunities

Community-based conservation can support livelihoods and biodiversity, while reinforcing local and Indigenous values, cultures, and institutions. Its delivery can help address cross-cutting global challenges, such as climate change, conservation, poverty, and food security.